五千年历史耶路撒冷 到底是谁的“首都”?

来源:译世界 作者:Yee君 时间:2017/12/08

作为智库型资讯与研究平台,译世界【官方微信号译·世界(YEEWORLD)】现推出“智库”栏目,以中英双语的形式为您精选全球重要智库及著名媒体等在语言服务、文化交流、人工智能、公共政策、国际关系等相关领域的前沿研究成果,并同时展现相关英文表达,欢迎关注!本期为“双语·智库”第十一期。

 
  美国总统特朗普当地时间12月6日宣布承认耶路撒冷为以色列首都,并将启动美驻以使馆从特拉维夫迁往耶路撒冷的进程。国际社会普遍担忧此举将增加中东地区的不稳定性。本期“双语·智库”栏目,一起跟随“译·世界”来关注该事,并了解这座宗教“圣城”的前世今生。

 


  ▲当地时间12月6日,美国总统特朗普在华盛顿白宫发表讲话(图片来源:海外网)


  US President Donald Trump announced Wednesday his official recognition of Jerusalem as the capital city of Israel, and instructed the State Department to begin the process of moving the US embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem.
  美国总统特朗普6日宣布承认耶路撒冷为以色列首都,并将启动美驻以使馆从特拉维夫迁往耶路撒冷的进程。

 
  "I am determined that it is time to officially recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Israel," said Trump, adding he judged "this cause of action to be in the best interests of the United States of America and the pursuit of peace between Israel and the Palestinians."
  “我认定现在是时候正式承认耶路撒冷为以色列首都了。”特朗普说,“我认为这一行动方针符合美国的利益,也能追求以色列与巴勒斯坦之间的和平。

 
  "This is a long overdue step to advance the peace process and to work towards a lasting agreement," Trump said, arguing his announcement is just a "recognition of reality," and is "not intended in any way to reflect a departure" from the US commitment to a lasting peace agreement "acceptable to both sides" of Israel and Palestine.
  “这是为了推进和平进程、达成长久协议而早该采取的一步。”特朗普说,做出这一决定是“对现实的承认”,“这个决定无意以任何方式反映出美国对促成持久和平协议的坚定承诺的背离。我们希望达成的协议对于巴以双方来说都是非常重要的。”

 
  "We are not taking a position of any final status issues, including the specific boundaries of the Israeli sovereignty in Jerusalem or the resolution of contested borders," he said. "Those questions are up to the parties involved."
  “我们在任何决定耶路撒冷的最终地位问题上,包括如何确定以色列(和巴勒斯坦)在耶路撒冷的边界问题上,不持任何立场”,他说,“这些问题有待以色列和巴基斯坦双方去决定。”


  Earlier, the Palestinian authorities have reiterated their stance that there will be no sovereign state of Palestine without East Jerusalem as its capital.
  此前巴勒斯坦当局重申了他们的立场,即未来东耶路撒冷必须成为巴勒斯坦的首都。

 
  Speaking of the relocation of the US embassy, Trump said the State Department will immediately begin to hire architects, engineers and planners, so as to make the new embassy "a magnificent tribute to peace" when it is completed.
  在谈及美驻以使馆的迁址时,特朗普说,美国国务院将即刻执行迁址工作,包括聘请建筑师、工程师和规划师,新的大使馆建成后,将是对和平的一个伟大献礼。

 
  During his presidential campaign, Trump pledged to move the US embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem.
  特朗普曾在总统竞选期间承诺将美国大使馆从特拉维夫迁至耶路撒冷。


  "It will take some time to find a site, to address security concerns, design a new facility, fund a new facility and build it," a senior administration official said.
  美国政府高级官员表示,“新使馆的选址、安保问题、新设施的设计、出资以及建设需要耗费一定的时间。”

 
  "It will be a matter of some years, it won't be months, it's going to take time."
  “这一过程将持续数年之久,不会在几个月内一蹴而就,需要耗费时间。”

 
  The status of Jerusalem is a critical issue in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, with both sides claiming the city as their capital.
  耶路撒冷的地位是巴以冲突中的关键问题,双方都宣称这里是各自的首都。


  In a frantic series of calls, the leaders of Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Jordan, the European Union, France, Germany and Turkey all warned Trump against the move.
  沙特阿拉伯、埃及、约旦、欧盟、法国、德国、土耳其等国家和组织的领导人纷纷致电特朗普,对此举提出警告。

 
  Anticipating protests, US government officials and their families have been ordered to avoid Jerusalem's Old City and the West Bank.
  出现抗议之声在意料之中,美国官员及家人已被要求避免进入耶路撒冷旧城以及约旦河西岸。


  Further warnings from world leaders came on Wednesday.
  6日越来越多的世界各国领导人提出警告。

 
  "Jerusalem is a unique city, sacred for Jews, Christians and Muslims," he said, a day after speaking by phone with Palestinian president Mahmud Abbas.
  巴勒斯坦总统阿巴斯在次日通电话时表示:“耶路撒冷是一座独特的城市,是犹太人、基督徒和穆斯林心中的圣地。”

 


  ▲巴勒斯坦总统阿巴斯


  He added that maintaining Jerusalem's status quo was important "in order to avoid adding new elements of tension to an already volatile world that is wracked by so many cruel conflicts."
  他还说,维持耶路撒冷现状至关重要,频发的残酷冲突已经让这个地区动荡不安,不要再制造新的紧张局势了


  British foreign minister Boris Johnson, speaking as he arrived for a NATO meeting in Brussels, said "we view the reports that we have heard with concern, because we think that Jerusalem obviously should be part of the final settlement between the Israelis and the Palestinians, a negotiated settlement." Turkey said it risked igniting a "fire" in the Middle East.
  英国外交大臣鲍里斯?约翰逊参加在布鲁塞尔举行的北约会议上指出:“听闻相关报道,我们感到很忧心,因为我们认为耶路撒冷问题需要通过双方协商、达成最终协议来解决。”土耳其方面表示,此举恐引发中东战火。

 


  ▲英国外交大臣鲍里斯?约翰逊

 
  Although the US Congress passed the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 which required the relocation of the US embassy in Israel from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem, former US presidents, including George W. Bush, Bill Clinton and Barack Obama, consistently renewed a presidential waiver to delay the relocation out of consideration for national security interests.
  尽管美国国会于1995年通过“耶路撒冷使馆法案”,要求美国驻以色列使馆从特拉维夫搬到耶路撒冷,但小布什、克林顿、奥巴马等美国前总统出于国家安全利益的考虑,一直在推迟搬迁期限。

 
  The status of Jerusalem remains one of the core issues in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. So far, the international community does not recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Israel and no foreign countries base their embassies in the city.
  耶路撒冷的地位一直是巴以冲突的核心问题之一。目前,国际社会尚未承认耶路撒冷为以色列首都,也没有别国在此设立使馆。

 


  ▲耶路撒冷远景

 
  Here are five key points about the disputed city:
  以下是关于这座争议之城的五点关键信息:

 
  1. Jerusalem has often been a flashpoint
  耶路撒冷常常动乱不断

 
  Deadly riots targeting Jewish communities erupted in 1929 over the city's most contentious holy site, known as the Temple Mount to Jews and the Noble Sanctuary to Muslims. Recognizing the religious sensitivities, the United Nations proposed a partition plan in 1947 that created two separate states but called for Jerusalem to be under international control.
  1929 年,以犹太群体为目标的动乱在该市最具争议的圣地发生,也就是犹太人眼中的圣殿山和穆斯林眼中的“高贵避难所”。出于宗教的敏感性考虑,联合国于1947年提出了分治计划,建立了两个独立国家,但规定耶路撒冷由联合国管理。


  The plan was approved, but fighting following Israel's declaration of independence left the city divided. Jordan occupied the east; Israel, the west. It remained this way until the 1967 Six-Day War, when Israel captured the eastern part of the city as well and claimed all of it as its capital. Amid peace negotiations in 2000, Ariel Sharon, then the Israeli opposition leader, visited the Temple Mount/Noble Sanctuary. Palestinians rioted the next day and it turned into a five-year uprising, the Second Intifada.
  该计划得到了认可,但以色列宣布独立之后随之而来的战斗导致了耶路撒冷的分裂。约旦占据了城东,以色列占据了城西。直到 1967 年的六日战争,以色列也占领了这座城市的东部,并宣布耶路撒冷整个城市为其首都。在 2000 年的和平谈判中,时任以色列反对党领导人阿里埃勒·沙龙访问了圣殿山/高贵避难所。第二天,巴勒斯坦人开始了长达五年的起义,被称为“第二次起义”。

 
  2. A holy city
  一座圣城

 
  Medieval maps show Jerusalem at the center of the known world, with good reason: Historic Jerusalem encompasses places sacred to the three Abrahamic religions.
  中世纪地图显示耶路撒冷位于已知世界的中心,理由很充分:历史上三大亚伯拉罕宗教的圣地均位于此。


  The Jewish temple, destroyed by Rome in A.D. 70, was located on a plateau that is now home to the A.l-Aqsa Mosque and the Dome of the Rock, a centuries-old shrine that Muslims revere as the place where the Prophet Muhammad ascended to heaven. The Western Wall, located below the plateau, is part of the ancient temple complex and the most sacred site of Jewish prayer. Nearby, according to Christian belief, are the sites of Jesus' Crucifixion, death and Resurrection.
  犹太圣殿位于如今阿克萨清真寺和圆顶清真寺所在的高原上,于公元70年被罗马摧毁。圆顶清真寺是一座有着数百年历史的圣殿,穆斯林尊崇这里是先知穆罕默德升到天堂的地方。哭墙位于高原下方,是古代宏伟神殿的一部分,也是犹太朝圣者心中最为神圣之地。根据基督教的信仰,不远之处便是耶稣被钉十字架、死而复生的地方。

 
  3. A divided city
  一座分裂之城


  Palestinian Arabs make up nearly 40 percent of Jerusalem's population and live almost exclusively in the east. They are legal residents but not citizens of Israel.
  巴勒斯坦阿拉伯人占耶路撒冷总人口近40%,并且集中居住在东城。他们是合法居民,但并非以色列公民。


  Following Israel's capture of East Jerusalem in 1967, the city's borders were redrawn, tripling its size. Some 200,000 Jewish Israelis have moved to the eastern side of the city, and a small number of Jewish nationalists have established residence within traditionally Arab neighborhoods.
  1967年,以色列占领东耶路撒冷后,城市边界被重新划定,城市面积扩大三倍。约20万以色列犹太人迁往城市东部,少数犹太民族主义者在阿拉伯人传统聚居地定居。


  Arab residents of East Jerusalem typically do not participate in municipal elections, so as not to recognize Israel's sovereignty over the city. The two communities have little social interaction.
  东耶路撒冷的阿拉伯居民通常不参与市政选举,也不承认以色列对耶路撒冷拥有主权。阿拉伯人和犹太人之间也鲜有来往。


  4. 10 U.S. presidents have tried to bring peace to the Middle East
  10位美国总统力促中东和平


  Just 11 days after the 1967 war, President Lyndon Johnson laid out a five-point plan for peace, which included "territorial integrity for all." Johnson's plan didn't go anywhere, but it established the principle of U.S. presidents trying to broker peace between the Israelis and the Palestinians.
  1967年战争爆发11天后,美国总统林登?约翰逊提出促进巴以和平的五项原则,包括“尊重各国领土完整”。约翰逊总统的计划并没有取得实质进展,但是却奠基了美国总统促进巴以和平的原则。

 
  President Bill Clinton hosted two weeks of talks at Camp David in 2000, the closest the two sides ever came to a deal. Trump is now the 10th U.S. president dealing with the conflict.
  2000年,美国总统比尔·克林顿在戴维营举行了长达两周的会谈,这是有史以来最有可能达成协议的一次巴以和谈。如今,特朗普成为处理巴以冲突的第十位美国总统。

 
  5. An embassy-in-waiting?
  耶路撒冷大使馆仍需等待?


  The United States maintains a consulate in Jerusalem, an independent mission that represents the U.S. in Jerusalem, the West Bank and Gaza. The U.S. Embassy in Tel Aviv does not have responsibility for these areas.
  美国在耶路撒冷设立了领事馆,能够在耶路撒冷、约旦河西岸地区和加沙地带代表美国。美国驻以色列特拉维夫大使馆的职权并不覆盖以上地区。


  The consulate consists of a historic building in West Jerusalem and a much larger new facility built in the south of the city, directly on the so-called Green Line, the 1949 armistice line between Israel and Jordan.
  领事馆恰好位于所谓的“绿线”——1949 年以色列和约旦之间的停战线上,由耶路撒冷西部的一座历史悠久的建筑和城市南部的一座大型新建建筑组成。


  The Trump administration is choosing not to designate this modern facility as an embassy and instead plans to build another building elsewhere in Jerusalem, a process that will take years.
  特朗普政府并没有把这个现代化的建筑作为新的大使馆选址,而是计划在耶路撒冷其他地方新建,这一过程需要花费数年时间。


  小百科:耶路撒冷的前世今生

耶路撒冷市位于巴勒斯坦中部犹地亚山的四座山丘上,是一座举世闻名的历史古城,距今已有5000多年的历史。耶路撒冷旧城是一座宗教圣城,是世界三大宗教——犹太教、伊斯兰教和基督教的发源地,三教都把耶路撒冷视为自己的圣地。

 
  正是由于耶路撒冷是三大宗教圣地,为了争夺圣地,自古以来,在这里不知发生过多少次残酷的征战。耶路撒冷先后18次被夷为平地,但每次之后都得到复兴,根本原因就在于这是一座世界公认的宗教圣地。有人说,耶路撒冷是世界上少见的屡遭破坏但又备受崇敬的一座美丽城市。(据新华网) 

 

资料来源:新华网、环球时报等


  编译:Yee君

 

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分类:翻译业内动态 标签:耶路撒冷 历史 首都 特朗普 巴以冲突  | 收藏

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