译词 | 一周热词:民法典草案、个税起征点上调、滴滴暂停顺风车、超导计算机…

来源:译世界 作者: Yee君 时间:2018/09/03


 本周热词: 

1. 民法典草案提请审议

2. 个税起征点上调至5000元

3. 滴滴全国范围暂停顺风车业务

4. 八部门印发方案保护青少年视力

5. 中国建造超导计算机

6. 英国命名丘比特日


热词

1

民法典草案

civil code drafts



Six draft sections on specific areas of civil law were submitted to China's top legislature on Monday, beginning the second phase of formulating the country's civil code.

8月27日,民法典六个分编提请国家最高立法机关审议,中国民法典编纂迈出了“第二步”。

 

The first part of the code, General Provisions of the Civil Law, was adopted on March 15 last year and entered into force on Oct. 1.

法典第一部分——《民法总则》于去年3月15日通过,自2017年10月1日起施行。

 

The six draft sections, namely provisions on property, contract, personality rights, marriage and family, inheritance, and torts, consist of 1,034 articles, and will be put through follow-up readings for further deliberation, reviews, and revisions. After that, the revised draft sections will be combined with the General Provision to form a draft civil code and submitted to the plenary session of the NPC in March 2020.

草案包括物权编、合同编、人格权编、婚姻家庭编、继承编、侵权责任编共六编1034条,后续将进一步审议、修订。经过修订的分编草案将与《民法总则》构成民法典草案,提交2020年3月召开的人大会审议。

 

Many of the articles were copied from existing laws in respective areas, but changes were also proposed.

多数条文摘自各领域现有法律,但也提出了新规。

 

Cooling-off period before divorce

离婚冷静期

 

The draft stipulates that a divorce application may be revoked by either side of the couple within the cooling-off period of one month after it is received by the authority.

草案规定,自婚姻登记机关收到离婚登记申请之日起一个月内,任何一方不愿意离婚的,可以向登记机关撤回申请。

 

Also, considering the changes in the country's demographic situation, provisions related to family planning in current laws are not included in the draft.

考虑到中国人口状况的变化,现行法律涉及计划生育的规定并未写入草案。

 

Personality rights

人格权

 

The draft sets a separate section on the right of personality, in a bid to highlight the protection of citizen's personal dignity.

草案将人格权独立成编,旨在重视保护公民人格尊严。

 

The draft clearly spells out the protection of citizens' privacy and personal information. In response to social concerns, the draft also includes a provision on anti-sexual harassment measures. Besides, the draft is believed to strengthen protection of the honor and reputation of late war heroes.

草案明确提出保护公民隐私和个人信息,并对禁止性骚扰作出规定,以回应社会关切。此外,草案将加强保护已故战争英烈的荣誉和名誉。


Vocabulary:

civil code  民法典

General Provisions of the Civil Law  《民法总则》

enter into force  生效,实行

personality right  人格权

tort  侵权行为

plenary session  全体大会

NPC (National People’s Congress)  全国人民代表大会

cooling-off period  冷静期

demographic situation  人口状况

family planning  计划生育

in a bid to  为了…

in response to  响应,对…作出回应

spell out  拼出;详细说明

sexual harassment  性骚扰


热词

2

个税起征点

income tax-free threshold



China's top legislature passed the amendment to the personal income tax law on Friday, raising minimum threshold for individual income tax from 3,500 to 5,000 yuan per month.

8月31日,国家最高立法机关通过关于修改个人所得税法的决定,个税起征点由现行3500元/月提高至5000元/月。

 

The new threshold would come into effect on Oct 1.

新起征点自10月1日起实施。


Vocabulary:

personal income tax  个人所得税

threshold  门槛;临界值

come into effect  开始生效,开始实施


热词

3

滴滴暂停顺风车业务

Didi ride-sharing service suspended



On Friday, a driver for Didi Hitch’s ride-sharing service killed his 20-year-old female passenger in eastern China’s Wenzhou City. Two days later, more information surface as the police and social media got involved to reveal more.

8月24日,滴滴顺风车的一名拼车业务司机在温州杀害了一名20岁的女性乘客。两天后,随着警方和社会媒体的调查和挖掘,更多细节浮出水面。

 

One of the most shocking details is that the suspected murderer forced the victim transfer an amount of 9,000 yuan (about 1,320 US dollars) to his account before raping and taking her life on the mountainside.

最令人震惊的细节之一是受害者在山坡上被奸杀前,曾被迫向嫌犯账户转账9000元。

 

According to the police, only three cars passed the Didi on the mountain road that day.

据警方消息,当天在案发现场的那条山路上,仅有3辆车经过那辆滴滴顺风车。

 

Although the passenger sent the SOS message to her friends and the family immediately contacted Didi customer service, they didn't pass on the information about the driver to the police for several hours.

尽管这名乘客及时向朋友发出了求救信号,其家人迅速联系了滴滴客服,但滴滴客服在几小时后才将司机信息提供给警方。

 

“Although the suspect had no prior criminal record, had provided authentic documentation and passed a facial recognition test, the incident still shows many deficiencies with our customer service processes,” Didi said in a statement on Sunday.

“虽然嫌疑人之前没有犯罪记录,提供了真实的文件,并在开始工作前通过了面部识别测试,但这次事件也显示了滴滴的客户服务流程存在许多不足之处。”27日滴滴在一份声明中表示。

 

The company promised to suspend its ride-sharing service nationwide from August 27 and reevaluate the business model. A plan for improving compliance will be submitted to the authorities by Sept. 1, and the company pledged to upgrade the customer service system and improve the mechanism of providing evidence for the police.

滴滴承诺自8月27日起暂停全国顺风车业务,对商业模式进行整改,并于9月1日前完成合规化运营工作方案,报送有关部门。滴滴还承诺升级客服系统,完善配合公安机关证据调取机制。


Vocabulary:

ride-sharing  顺风车;拼车

pass on to  传给;传达;传递…给…

facial recognition  面部识别

deficiency  缺陷,缺点;缺乏;不足的数额

reevaluate  再评估;重新估计

compliance  顺从,服从;承诺


热词

4

保护青少年视力

protecting children's eyesight



China rolled out a new scheme Thursday to curb the rise in nearsightedness - or myopia - among children and teenagers for the sake of their health and the nation's future.

为了国家的未来和青少年的身心健康,中国于8月30日推出了一项抑制青少年近视上升的新方案。

 

The scheme, jointly issued by the Ministry of Education (MOE), the National Health Commission (NHC) and six other departments, aims to keep the myopia rate among 6-year-old kids at around 3 percent by 2030, with the incidence among primary school kids to drop below 38 percent, and the rate among junior and senior high school students to fall below 60 percent and 70 percent respectively.

该方案由教育部、国家卫健委和其他六个部门联合发布,旨在到2030年将6岁儿童近视率控制在3%左右,小学生近视率下降到38%以下,初中生近视率下降到60%以下,高中阶段学生近视率下降到70%以下。

 

The scheme also said the overall myopia rate of Chinese teenagers should be reduced by over 0.5 percent each year from 2018 to 2023. In high-incidence provinces, the reduction should reach 1 percent each year, the scheme said.

方案提出,到2023年,力争实现全国儿童青少年总体近视率在2018年的基础上每年降低0.5个百分点以上,近视高发省份每年降低1个百分点以上。

 

Strengthened regulation over production and selling of eyeglasses and limitation of teenagers' online gaming time are required by the scheme.

该方案要求加强对眼镜生产和销售的监管,并限制青少年在线游戏时间。

 

The scheme also introduces indicators to assess the performance of local governments on their measures to control myopia of children under their jurisdictions.

该方案还引入了政府绩效考核,以评估地方政府在其管辖范围内,在防控青少年近视方面的表现。


Vocabulary:

nearsightedness  近视眼;目光短浅

myopia  [眼科] 近视;目光短浅,缺乏远见

jurisdiction  司法权,审判权,管辖权;权限,权力

National Health Commission (NHC)  国家卫生健康委员会

Ministry of Education (MOE)  教育部


热词

5

超导计算机

superconducting computer



Chinese scientists are building a low-energy and high-performance superconducting computer, aiming to complete a prototype as early as 2022, according to a media report.

据媒体报道,中国科学家正在建造一种低能耗高性能超导计算机,目标是在2022年完成原型机。

 

Scientists at the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) launched the project, worth one-billion yuan (145 million US dollars), last November, the South China Morning Post reported on Sunday.

据《南华早报》8月26日的报道,中科院科学家于去年11月启动了这项价值10亿元的项目。

 

The unprecedented machine will have central processing units running at a frequency of 770 gigahertz or higher. By contrast, the fastest existing commercial processor runs at just 5 Ghz, according to the report.

这台机器史无前例,其中央处理器将以770千兆赫或更高频率运行。据报道,相比之下,目前最快的商用处理器的运行速度仅为5千兆赫。

 

By 2040, the world’s computers may need more electricity than what our global energy production can deliver, according to a report released by the Semiconductor Industry Association and the Semiconductor Research Corporation in 2015.

根据美国半导体工业协会和半导体研究公司 2015年发布的一份报告,到2040年,全球计算机所需的电力可能超过全球能源产能。

 

The superconducting computer could be one of the most radical solutions to an ever-increasing energy demand. The concept rests on sending electric currents through supercooled circuits made of superconducting materials.

对于日益增长的能源需求,超导计算机可能是最彻底的解决方案之一。通过超导材料制成的过冷电路发送电流,是超导计算机的概念基础。

 

CAS President Bai Chunli said superconducting digital circuits and superconducting computers will help China achieve parity in integrated circuit technology.

中科院院长白春礼表示,超导数字电路和超导计算机将帮助中国在集成电路技术方面超越其他国家。


Vocabulary:

superconducting computer  超导计算机

Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)  中国科学院

central processing unit (CPU)  中央处理器

gigahertz  千兆赫

by contrast  相比之下;与之相比

supercooled  [物] 过冷的

rest on  停留在;依靠

integrated circuit  [电子] 集成电路


热词

6

丘比特日

Cupid day



August 30 has proved the most popular day for couples in Britain to tie the knot, the Office for National Statistics (ONS) said Thursday. 

英国国家统计办公室8月30日表示,英国人最喜欢在这一天喜结连理。

 

Statisticians from ONS have trawled through thousands of records spanning the last 20 years to discover the most popular date of the year for weddings. 

为了找到一年中最受欢迎的婚礼举办日,国家统计办公室的统计师查阅了过去20年成千上万条记录。

 

With an average of 1,602, the Cupid day of the year in Britain is August 30, beating even that famous day for romantics, Valentine's Day on Feb. 14. 

在英国,每年的丘比特日是8月30日,平均有1602对新人在这一天结婚,甚至超过了著名的浪漫之日——2月14日情人节。

 

The records also show the least popular day of the year for matrimonies is Dec. 25, Christmas Day. 

记录还显示,每年圣诞节(12月25日)结婚人数最少。


Vocabulary:

tie the knot  结婚

statistician  统计学家;统计师

trawl  用网捕鱼;搜索

matrimony  婚礼;婚姻生活


注:文中英文均来自专业的英文资讯网站

声明:本文为译·世界原创作品,转载或引用请注明出处。未经授权擅用将追究法律责任。

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