一周热词:美国退出联合国教科文组织、拉斯维加斯枪击、"神户制钢"造假、"行星撞地球"…

来源:译·世界 作者:Yee君 时间:2017/10/16

本周热词: 


  1. 加州森林大火

2. 美国退出联合国教科文组织

3. 2017诺贝尔奖揭晓

4. 章莹颖案嫌犯被控绑架致死罪

5. 拉斯维加斯枪击案

6. 日本钢企神户公司造假丑闻

7. 北京拟建“自行车高速路”

8. 中国发现数颗脉冲星

9. 云南“火流星”空爆事件

 

1. 加州大火

    California fires

 

 


  The death toll rose to 31 Thursday as California authorities began assessing the damage from the deadliest spate of wildfires to strike the state in more than 80 years, even while the blazes continued to flatten swaths of land and drive people from their homes.

加利福尼亚州遭遇80多年来最严重的一场森林大火,随着加州官方开始统计大火造成的损失,死亡人数升至31人(编者注:数据统计截止到10月13日),而大火还在摧毁大片土地,居民被迫撤离。


  California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection officials said some 190,000 acres had scorched across the state by Thursday afternoon as high winds and dry conditions spread the fires with frightening speed. Sonoma County, north of San Francisco, sustained the most damage, with 17 people confirmed dead and 400 reported missing; in the city of Santa Rosa, officials reported nearly 3,000 homes destroyed.

据加州森林和火灾保护局称,由于大风和干燥的气候条件,火势蔓延速度惊人,截至当地时间12日下午,受灾面积达19万英亩(约770平方公里)。旧金山北部的索诺玛县受灾情况最为严重,已确认17人死亡,另据报道有400人失踪。据官方消息,圣罗莎市有近3000所房屋被毁。


  Taken together, the blazes have killed more people than the last disastrous fire to strike the state, the Oakland Hills fire in 1991. The death toll now matches that of the 1933 Griffith Park fire in Los Angeles — and is likely to rise as authorities continue to explore the wreckage.

从整体伤亡情况来看,这次大火造成的死亡人数超过上次加州1991年发生的奥克兰重大火灾。目前的死亡人数与1933年洛杉矶格里菲斯公园大火的死亡人数相当,并且随着官方进一步统计伤亡情况,死亡人数还可能会上升。


  Vocabulary:

death toll  死亡人数

spate  洪水;一阵;大雨;突然迸发

blazes  火焰;地狱

flatten  击败,摧毁;使……平坦,夷为平地

swath  细长的列;收割的刈痕;收割的宽度

drive from  从…赶走…;从…开车来

scorch  v. 烧焦;使枯萎;挖苦  n. 烧焦;焦痕

high winds  疾风,强风

sustain  维持,承受

disastrous  灾难性的;损失惨重的;悲伤的

wreckage  (失事船或飞机等的)残骸;(船只等的)失事


  2. 美国退出联合国教科文组织

    America pulls out of UNESCO

 


  The United States announced its intention Thursday to withdraw from UNESCO, citing concerns about the organization's "continuing anti-Israel bias." The U.S. helped found the organization, which promotes education, culture, and science worldwide, after World War II. America will stay on as a UNESCO observer.

10月12日,美国宣布将退出联合国教科文组织,称该组织存在“针对以色列的持续偏见”。二战结束后,美国曾助力联合国教科文组织的建立,该组织的宗旨是促进教育、科学及文化方面的国际合作。退出后,美国将以观察员国身份继续在该组织保持影响。


  It is not the first time the U.S. has withdrawn. "The Reagan administration decided to withdraw from the organization in 1984, at the height of the Cold War, citing corruption and what it considered an ideological tilt towards the Soviet Union against the West," Foreign Policy writes. "President George W. Bush rejoined the organization in 2002, claiming it had gotten its books in order and expunged some of its most virulent anti-Western and anti-Israel biases."

这并非美国首次退出教科文组织。《外交政策》杂志指出:“1984年,在冷战的高峰期,里根政府决定退出该组织,称其腐败并且存在向前苏联对抗西方的意识形态的倾斜。2002年,布什总统宣布重返该组织,称该组织已恢复秩序并且去掉了某些严重的反西方、反以色列的偏见。”


  In 2011, the Obama administration cut $80 million a year from its UNESCO budget in response to the organization's inclusion of Palestine as a member.

2011年,为抗议教科文组织将巴勒斯坦纳入成员国,奥巴马政府砍掉了8000万美元(约合人民币5.26亿元)的会费。


  Secretary of State Rex Tillerson additionally wants to save money with the withdrawal, avoiding the $500 million owed to the agency due to American funding cuts.

美国国务卿蒂勒森还表示退出教科文组织是为了节省开支,避免缴纳因美国财政削减而拖欠该组织的5亿美元(约合人民币32.9亿元)会费。


  Vocabulary:

withdraw from  退出;离开

United Nations Educational,Scientific,and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) 联合国教科文组织

at the height of  在…顶点;在…的顶峰或鼎盛时期

ideological  思想的,意识形态的

the Soviet Union  前苏联

expunge  擦去,删掉

virulent  剧毒的,恶性的,有恶意的

bias  偏见,偏爱,斜纹

 

3. 2017诺贝尔奖

    2017 Nobel Prizes

 


  The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 2017 was awarded jointly to three American scientists including Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W. Young for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm.

2017年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖授予三名美国科学家——杰弗里·霍尔、迈克尔·罗斯巴什和迈克尔·扬,以表彰他们在研究生物钟运行的分子机制方面的成就。


  The Nobel Prize in Physics for 2017 was awarded with one half to Rainer Weiss and the other half jointly to Barry C. Barish and Kip S. Thorne “for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves”.

2017年诺贝尔物理学奖一半授予雷纳·韦斯,另一半授予巴里·巴里什和基普·索恩,以表彰他们“为‘激光干涉引力波天文台’项目和发现引力波所作的贡献”。


  The Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2017 was awarded to Jacques Dubochet, Joachim Frank and Richard Henderson “for developing cryo-electron microscopy for the high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution”.

2017年诺贝尔化学奖授予雅克·杜博歇、约阿希姆·弗兰克以及理查德·亨德森,以表彰他们“在开发用于溶液中生物分子高分辨率结构测定的冷冻电镜技术方面的贡献”。


  The Nobel Prize in Literature for 2017 was awarded to the English author Kazuo Ishiguro “who, in novels of great emotional force, has uncovered the abyss beneath our illusory sense of connection with the world”.

2017年诺贝尔文学奖授予日裔英国作家石黑一雄,因为他“凭借充满强烈情感的小说揭示了我们幻觉之下的深渊”。


  The 2017 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN) for its "work to draw attention to the catastrophic humanitarian consequences of any use of nuclear weapons and for its ground-breaking efforts to achieve a treaty-based prohibition of such weapons."

2017年诺贝尔和平奖授予“国际废除核武器运动”组织,以表彰其致力于普及核武器给人类带来巨大灾难的相关知识以及争取彻底消除核武器的努力。


  The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2017 was awarded to American economist Richard H. Thaler "for his contributions to behavioural economics".

2017纪念阿尔弗雷德·诺贝尔瑞典银行经济学奖(通常称为诺贝尔经济学奖或瑞典银行经济学奖)授予美国经济学家理查德·塞勒,表彰“其在行为经济学领域的贡献”。


  Vocabulary:

circadian rhythm  生理节律,昼夜节律

Laser Interferometer Gravitation Wave Observatory(LIGO)  激光干涉引力波天文台

gravitational waves  引力波

high-resolution  高分辨率

cryo-electron microscopy  冷冻电子显微镜

biomolecule  生物分子

solution  n.溶液,溶解,解决方案

abyss  n.深渊,深邃,无底洞,地狱

ground-breaking  adj.独创的,开拓性的

behavioural economics行为经济学

 

4. 绑架致死罪

    kidnapping resulting in death

 


  A federal grand jury charged Brendt A. Christensen, the suspect in the kidnapping of visiting Chinese scholar Zhang Yingying, with kidnapping resulting in death on October 3. The pending trial date for Christensen is Feb 27, 2018.

10月3日,美联邦大陪审团正式以绑架致死罪起诉涉嫌绑架中国访问学者章莹颖的嫌疑人布兰登特·克里斯滕森。案件审理日期定于2018年2月27日。


  If convicted, Christensen could face mandatory life in prison or even the death penalty, said a news release by the U.S. Justice Department.

美国司法部发布消息称,如罪名成立,嫌犯或将面临强制性终身监禁或死刑。


  The new indictment alleges that Christensen committed the offense in an especially heinous, cruel or depraved manner, in that it involved torture or serious physical abuse to the victim; and, that Christensen committed the offense after substantial planning and premeditation to cause the death of a person.

新起诉书称,克里斯滕森以极为邪恶、残忍、卑鄙的手段对受害人实施了严重的身体折磨与虐待,经过充分预谋后杀害了被害人。


  The indictment also charges Christensen with two counts of making false statements to Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) agents in June, which could result in five years in prison on each charge if convicted.

起诉书还追加了另两项虚假陈述罪,起诉嫌犯在6月面对联邦调查局审问时说谎。如果克里斯滕森做伪证的罪名成立,每项罪名将最高获刑5年。


  Vocabulary:

federal grand jury  联邦大陪审团

charge sb. with…  控告某人犯有……

kidnap  v.绑架,劫持

visiting scholar  访问学者

mandatory  adj.法定的,(刑罚)强制性的  n.受托者

life in prison  终身监禁,无期徒刑

death penalty  死刑

convict  证明…有罪;宣告…有罪

indictment  n.起诉书,控告

heinous  adj.可憎的,极凶恶的

premeditation  n.预谋,预先设想

false statements虚假陈述

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)  (美国)联邦调查局

 

5. 拉斯维加斯枪击案

    Las Vegas shooting

 


  On the night of October 1, a gunman unleashed a shower of bullets on an outdoor country music festival below from his suite on the 32nd floor of the nearby Mandalay Bay hotel.

当地时间10月1日晚,一名枪手从拉斯维加斯的曼德勒海湾酒店32层房间向楼下参加露天乡村音乐节的人群扫射。


  The suspect, Stephen Paddock of Mesquite, Nevada, was later found dead in his hotel room from a self-inflicted gunshot wound. His motive is unknown yet. Authorities said initially there was no evidence of any connection to international terrorism.

嫌犯名为史蒂芬·帕多克,为内华达州麦斯奎特人,事发后帕多克在其酒店房间内开枪自杀,其行凶动机仍不明朗。当局称,无证据表明该案与国际恐怖主义有关。


  Family lawyers for one of the victims filed a petition with the district court in Nevada seeking to freeze the assets of the shooter.

一名死者的家庭律师向内达华州地方法院提交了请愿书,希望能够冻结凶手的财产。


  The incident is the deadliest mass shooting in modern American history. At least 59 people were killed and 527 others were injured until Monday.

这是美国现代史上伤亡规模最大的枪击案。截至10月9日,已造成至少59人丧生,527人受伤。


  Vocabulary:

unleash  v.发动,解除…的束缚,不受约束,放荡不羁

outdoor country music festival  露天音乐节

self-inflicted  adj.自己造成的,加于自身的

file a petition  提交请愿书

district court  (美)州地方法院

mass shooting  大规模枪击案

 

6. 神户制钢公司数据造假

    Kobe Steel data cheating

 


  Japan’s third-biggest steelmaker, Kobe Steel, is embroiled in a deepening scandal over the quality of products including aluminium and copper used in cars, aircraft, space rockets and defence equipment.

日本第三大钢铁制造商神户制钢公司因产品质量问题深陷丑闻风波,存在问题的铜铝产品应用于汽车、飞机、航天火箭、国防设备等领域。


  On Wednesday, the company said it had found one case of falsified data on iron ore powder – mainly used in vehicle parts such as gears – that had been shipped to a customer. It follows Kobe’s admission at the weekend that it had falsified figures about the strength and durability of its aluminium and copper products.

10月11日,公司称发现一起铁矿石粉数据造假情况,这些铁矿石粉主要用于生产齿轮等汽车零件,已发往客户。此前神户制钢公司在上周末承认伪造了其铜铝产品的强度和耐用性数据。


  Kobe’s customers – the firm said more than 200 were affected – are rushing to check the safety of their products. The company supplies materials to carmakers Ford, Toyota, Honda, Mazda and Subaru as well as aircraft-makers Boeing and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. Toyota, Nissan and Honda have all confirmed that they have used aluminium supplied by Kobe in hoods and doors. Hitachi said trains exported to the UK were affected, but the trains had not started operating yet.

据神户制钢公司称,超过200家企业客户受到影响,这些客户正在即刻检查各自产品的安全性。“神户制钢”为福特、丰田、本田、马自达、斯巴鲁等汽车制造商和波音、三菱重工等飞机制造商供应材料,丰田、尼桑和本田均已确认他们生产的引擎盖和车门采用了“神户制钢”的铝材,日立称出口到英国的列车也受到了影响,不过这批列车尚未投入运营。


  Shares in Kobe Steel fell by nearly 40% in two days, wiping more than $1.5bn  off its market value.

两天内“神户制钢”的股票下跌近40%,15亿美元(约合人民币99亿元)市值蒸发。


  Vocabulary:

be embroiled in …  卷入…

falsify  歪曲(事实),篡改

iron ore  铁矿石

durability  耐久性,耐用年限

rush to …  急着做…,匆匆赶往…

hood  风帽,(烟囱)风罩,(汽车)引擎盖

wipe off  去除,清偿

market value  市值

 

7. 自行车高速路

    bicycle expressway

 


  Beijing is to build its first "bicycle expressway" connecting Tiantongyuan with Zhongguancun. Work on the project is due to get underway in 2018.

北京计划在天通苑和中关村之间建造首条“自行车高速路”,工程将于明年启动。


  The exclusive cycle way will be 9 kilometers in length, and 5 to 7 meters wide, according to Gan Feng from the Beijing Municipal Commission of Transport.

据北京市交通委甘锋介绍,这条骑行专用道全长9公里,宽5-7米。


  "The main purpose of the 'bicycle expressway' is to meet the needs of commuters in Tiantongyuan, Huilongguan, and Shangdi areas, etc. who want to get to Zhongguancun by bicycle," said Gan.

甘锋表示:“‘自行车高速路’的主要目的是满足天通苑、回龙观、上地等区域的通勤族骑行到达中关村的需求。”


  According to one report, over 20% of those surveyed living in Huilongguan work at Zhongguancun, with 16% of those in Huilongguan working at Shangdi. The ten-kilometer passage from Huilongguan to Zhongguancun is currently cut by two motorways, making travel by bike difficult.

一项报告显示,超过20%的受访者住在回龙观,在中关村工作;16%的受访者住在回龙观,在上地工作。回龙观与中关村之间的10公里路程被两条高速公路阻隔(京新高速、京藏高速),导致自行车出行十分艰难。


  Beijing is planning to improve facilities for non-motor vehicles and pedestrians, with a target of 3,200 kilometers of cycle track by 2020. 600 kilometers of track will be covered by the end of this year. Some areas of the capital already have good facilities for cyclists.

北京计划提升非机动车和行人通行设施,预计到2020年完成3200公里自行车道的改造,今年年底前将完成600公里。首都部分地区的骑行设施已经得到改善。


  "The road system for slower traffic within the third ring road of Beijing is relatively effective, especially in the CBD area, with lower incidents of motor vehicles trespassing into bicycle lanes or zebra crossings," said Gan Feng.

甘锋说:“北京三环路以内的慢行道路系统已见成效,特别是中央商务区,机动车占用非机动车道和斑马线的情况有所减少。”


  Vocabulary:

get underway  开始,启程

exclusive cycle way  自行车专用道

commuter  通勤者

non-motor vehicle  非机动车

pedestrian  行人

CBD (central business district)  中央商务区

trespass  v. 侵入,冒犯  n. 罪过,侵占

zebra crossing  斑马线,人行横道

 

8. China identified multiple pulsars

    中国发现数颗脉冲星

 


  After one year of trial operation, China's Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST), the world's largest single-dish radio telescope, has identified multiple pulsars, the National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC) said Tuesday.

10月10日,中国科学院国家天文台宣布称,世界最大单口径射电望远镜——中国500米口径球面射电望远镜(FAST)在历经一年的试运行后,发现多颗脉冲星。


  It was the first time a radio telescope independently developed by Chinese scientists has found pulsars.

这是中国科学家首次利用自主研制的射电望远镜发现脉冲星。


  Two of the pulsars, named J1859-01 and J1931-01, are 16,000 light years and 4,100 light years from Earth with rotation periods of 1.83 seconds and 0.59 seconds, respectively.

其中两颗脉冲星,一颗编号J1859-01,自转周期为1.83秒,距离地球1.6万光年;一颗编号J1931-01,自转周期0.59秒,距离地球约4100光年。


  According to Li Di, chief scientist at the radio astronomy division of the NAOC, the two pulsars were discovered on Aug. 22 and 25 when FAST was drift-scanning the southern galactic plane. The discovery was later confirmed by the Parkes radio telescope in Australia in September.

国家天文台射电天文部门首席科学家李菂称,两颗脉冲星分别由FAST于今年8月22日、25日在南天银道面通过漂移扫描发现。9月,澳大利亚帕克斯射电望远镜通过观测确认了这项发现。


  Studying pulsars, named so because they appear to pulse as they spin, provides scientists with a natural laboratory to look at some of the most extreme conditions in the universe.

脉冲星得名于旋转时会发出脉冲,通过对脉冲星的研究,科学家能够在自然实验室考察宇宙的最极端条件。


  Vocabulary:

trial operation  试营业,试运行

radio telescope  射电望远镜,电波望远镜

pulsar  脉冲星

the National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC)  中国科学院国家天文台

light year  光年

rotation period  自转周期,转动周期

radio astronomy  射电天文学

galactic /g?'l?kt?k/ plane  银道面

 

9. 火流星

    fireball meteor

 


  A fireball meteor, with the power equal to that of 540 tonnes of TNT, explodes through the night sky at around 8 p.m. in Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Deqen in Yunan Province on October 4, with no casualties or property losses reported yet.

10月4日20时许,云南省迪庆藏族自治州发生一起“火流星”空爆事件,爆炸当量相当于540吨TNT,目前尚无人员伤亡或房屋受损情况报道。


  "The fireball was caused by a very small heavenly body, compared with an asteroid," said researcher Wang Xiaobin with Yunnan Observatory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, adding that such incident is not unusual.

“相比于近地小行星,此次迪庆州境内发生的‘火流星’空爆事件应该是由非常小的小天体引发的。”中国科学院云南天文台研究员王晓彬说,“类似事件并不少见。”


  Wang explained that a glorious fireball usually occurs when a meteoroid burns after entering the atmosphere.

王晓彬介绍,流星体通过地球大气时被烧蚀,呈现为明亮的“火流星”。


  According to reports, the mid-air blast happened at a relatively low 23 miles, with meteorites likely to have been scattered across the outskirts and villages of Shangri-La.

据报道,此次火流星的空爆高度相对较低,只有23英里(约37公里),陨石可能散落在香格里拉城郊及附近村落。


  The incident amazed many residents and tourists in the area who were viewing the full moon on the Mid-Autumn Festival. Videos capturing the phenomenon have gone viral on the Internet.

当地许多正在中秋节赏月的居民和游客们对这个现象震惊不已。而捕捉拍摄到火流星的视频也在网络上迅速走红。


  Vocabulary:

meteor   流星,大气现象

trinitrotoluene (TNT)  n.三硝基甲苯,烈性黄色炸药

heavenly body  天体

asteroid  行星

meteoroid  流星体

mid-air blast  空爆

the Mid-Autumn Festival  中秋节

go viral  疯狂传播

outskirts  市郊,郊区


  注:文中英文均来自专业的英文资讯网站


  声明:本文为译·世界原创作品,转载或引用请注明出处。未经授权擅用将追究法律责任。

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