缅怀|著名翻译家张培基去世,感谢您带给我们的优美散文翻译...

来源:英语世界公众号 作者: 时间:2021/06/29


编者按

惊悉资深翻译家、教育家张培基先生于2021年6月27日上午9时左右安详离世,享年百岁。

张先生出生于1921年,福建福州人;1945年毕业于上海圣约翰大学英国文学系;1946年在远东国际军事法庭任英语翻译,参加了审判日本战犯的工作,后留学美国。新中国成立后,他毅然回国,先后在解放军外国语学院和对外经济贸易大学任教,深受学生爱戴。他著述及译作颇丰,尤其是英译的大量中国现代散文,译笔自然流畅,为中外学者的研究提供了极好的素材,也令广大学子受益匪浅。

张先生长期担任《英语世界》杂志顾问,多年主持杂志的汉译英栏目,供稿百余篇,为杂志的发展做出了不可磨灭的贡献。

今天,我们特摘选张先生2004年在杂志上发表的一篇译作以为缅怀,后附对外经济贸易大学2015年的一篇采访手记,希望读者朋友可以更全面地了解这位一直默默耕耘的老先生。

张先生一路走好!


   生命  Life   文/何为*译注/张培基

如果回归自然,各有不同的方式,后人总是尊重前辈的人生最后一次选择[1]。一位朋友偶然讲起一件事[2],有如一篇小小说,听者动容。There are various ways of returning to nature, but people generally respect the last wish made by their parents towards their journey’s end. A friend of mine incidentally related to me the following occurrence which, like a little story, is very touching:
在新开发的丛林里,一条蜿蜒的小径上,一个衣着素色的女人[3]踽踽独行,径直走向林子里的一棵树。这里许多树大小参差不一,有的移植不久,不过都长得很快。在一个时期内,都挺直有神。新生的树叶嫩绿有生机。当然,有人专门护理这些纪念树[4]。In a newly opened-up forest, a quietly dressed woman walked all by herself on a winding path straight towards one of the trees. There were many trees of varying sizes, and some had just been transplanted, but all were shooting up fast, standing straight and stout and covered with light green young leaves. Evidently, some people had been put in charge of these memorial trees.
不知多少年[5],这个女人总是带着一束鲜花默默地置于树根旁,然后仰起头来,对着树身凝视,翕动[6]着她独有的小小嘴唇,既像独语,又像倾诉。她退后一步,打量她这树高了多少,细心地除去树下斑斑驳驳的落叶,向这棵移植多年的树倾身拥抱,亲了一下,轻轻摩挲树皮的皱纹,如同面对一个有生命的躯体。不久,她依依不舍地转身离去,消失在暮色渐浓的秋天最后一抹余晖里。As she had been doing for we don’t know how many years, the woman stood silently beside the tree with a bunch of fresh flowers in her hand. She raised her head to fix her eyes on the tree and kept moving her unique small lips as if she were soliloquizing or sharing her innermost feelings with someone. She took a step back to assess how much the tree had grown in height and softly removed the mottled fallen leaves under it. She bent forward to hug and kiss the tree that had been transplanted many years before, and gently stroked its wrinkled bark as if it were something alive. Then she reluctantly turned round and left, vanishing into the last rays of an autumn day in the deepening dusk.
一阵秋风吹过[7],树叶沙沙地响动,仿佛隐秘的私语[8]。女人顿时回过身来,惟有她才能听懂私语的全部含义。于是喃喃自语向大树告诉。含着泪,走向她的归途。At a sudden gust of the autumn wind, the tree rustled like it was whispering secretly and the woman, being the only person capable of understanding the full implications of the whisper, immediately turned round. Then, after mumbling a few words to the tree, she said goodbye to it and set out on her way home with tears in her eyes.


年复一年,小径上的女人孤独的背影,显得越来越苍老了[9]。As the years went by, the woman, a regular solitary visitor on the path, became older and older.
若干年后,这棵树长得更高大了,树冠缀满葱茏的树叶。它屹立在这片土地上,风吹来,满树充满生命的绿色更繁茂了。它对着苍穹,仰望太阳、月亮和星星的运行,与大自然亲密无间连成一片。Several years later, the tree became even taller and was crowned with verdant foliage. It stood erect and became more and more luxuriantly green in the wind. It looked up at the firmament to watch the motions of the sun, moon and stars and thus merged itself with Mother Nature.
又过了些时候,靠近大树旁出现了一棵新移植的小树。小树很壮硕,也很安静。随着岁月递增,年长日久,大树和小树埋在泥土下的根茎错节,相互交织[10]。两棵树下各埋着一个精致的小木盒,木盒里的骨灰,逐渐化为树根下的有机肥,融入树身内[11]。两个老者相继以这样的方式回归自然,在大自然的怀抱中,生命得以延续。树上每一片小绿叶都孕含着绿色的希望。Another period of time afterwards, there appeared close to it a newly transplanted small tree. It was robust and quiet. With the passage of time, the roots of the two trees had become twined together. They each had a delicate small wooden cinerary casket buried underneath them. The ashes in the caskets had gradually turned into organic fertilizer passing into the trees by way of the roots. The two elderly persons had successively chosen the same way of returning to nature so as to have life prolonged in the bosom of nature. Each tender leaf in the trees was pregnant with green hope.


这是真的,是一首歌颂树葬的诗篇。不用问他们是谁,是谁,就是谁。It’s a true story. It’s a poem singing the praises of tree burial. No need to identify the two elderly people though. It could be any person.


*何为(1922 ~),散文家,原名何振业,浙江定海人。20世纪40年代初先后就读于上海大同大学和圣约翰大学,1937年开始发表文学作品,在上海历任报纸记者、刊物编辑和电影文学编辑。1959年调至福建电影制片厂任故事片编辑负责人,1964年转任福建省作家协会专业作家。现为中国作家协会全国委员会名誉会员。何为的散文以其独特的情节著称。《生命》一文选自他2003年出版的散文集《近景与远景》。文章短隽有味,意境清新,富有诗情与哲理。

Notes注释:[1] “前辈的人生最后一次选择”按“父母亲的临终愿望”之意译为the last wish made by their parents towards their journey’s end,其中one’s journey’s end是成语,意为“临终”“生命的尽头”。[2] “一位朋友偶然讲起一件事”译为A friend of mine incidentally related to me the following occurrence,其中related意为“讲述”,等于recounted、spoke of、talked about等。此句也可译成A friend of mine by chance spoke of the following。[3] “衣着素色的女人”译为a quietly dressed woman,其中quiet 一词的意思是指颜色“素净”“不显眼”等。此短语也可译为a woman in quiet clothing、a woman wearing a dress in quiet colours等。[4] “当然,有人专门护理这些纪念树”译成:Evidently, some people had been put in charge of the memorial trees. 其中未把“当然”译为Of course,因Evidently的内含更切合上下文。此句也可译为:Evidently, some persons had been specially assigned to take good care of the memorial trees.[5] “不知多少年”译为As she had been doing for we don’t know how many years,其中we don’t know how是插入语,用以表达原文的“不知”。此从句也可译为As had always been the case for many years或As she had been doing for many years。[6] “翕动”的意思是“一张一合”,故译kept moving,未译moved。[7] “一阵秋风吹过”根据上下文应指“起了一阵秋风”,故译At a sudden gust of the autumn wind,其中At的含义是“作为对……的反应”或“由于”。[8] “树叶沙沙地响动,仿佛隐秘的私语”译成the tree rustled like it was whispering secretly,等于the tree rustled as if it were whispering secretly。译文中的like意同as if,这用法常见于通俗语中。[9] “小径上的女人孤独的背影,显得越来越苍老了”不宜直译,现按“常见于小径上的那个孤独女人,显得越来越苍老了”译成the woman, a regular solitary visitor on the path, became older and older。[10] “根茎错节,相互交织”可按“树根相互盘绕”之意译为the roots of the two trees had become twined together。[11] “木盒里的骨灰,逐渐化为树根下的有机肥,融入树身内”可按“木盒里的骨灰,逐渐化为有机肥,通过树根,进入树身”译成The ashes in the casket had gradually turned into organic fertilizer passing into the tree trunks by way of the roots,其中by way of意同through。


(选自《英语世界》2004年第9期)



往昔还看今朝

——听退休教授张培基讲述“东京审判”故事


[来源:2015-09-06 对外经济贸易大学网站]


在中国人民抗日战争暨世界反法西斯战争胜利70周年纪念日即将到来之际,为还原更真实鲜活的历史,激发大学生爱国主义热情,英语学院分党委副书记徐文兵带领英院学生干部专程采访了曾在远东国际军事法庭担任英文翻译并亲身经历过东京审判的退休老教授张培基先生。


张培基(1921-),福建福州人,中国著名翻译家,杰出教授。早年移居上海,在那里接受了初等和中等教育,1945年毕业于上海圣约翰大学英国文学系。先后在解放军洛阳外国语学院、对外经济贸易大学任教,1991年退休。他的名字已经被列入《中国翻译家词典》,在当今中国翻译界有着重要的地位。


张培基先生在赴日本担任远东国际军事法庭的英文翻译之前,已经从上海圣约翰大学毕业,并在上海工作,担任《自由西报》(英文)记者、《中国评论周报》(The China Critic)特约撰稿、《中国年鉴》(英文)副总编等职务。


由于东京审判检察官表示人手不足,便由远东国际军事法庭美国检察长季南(Keenan, J.)主持,从上海招募人员协助工作。报界老前辈桂中枢先生作为季南先生的老同学,推荐了张培基先生前去。我国在国际军事法庭的检察官向哲浚先生还亲自到上海找到张培基先生等人,从报纸上摘录一段话让他们进行翻译,通过测试之后,张培基先生一行才被正式录用。


东京审判从1946年5月开始,直到1948年11月结束。张培基先生1945年开始参加前期准备工作,从1946年至1947年都在远东国际军事法庭担任中国检察官的助手,工作时间共计2年7个月。工作包括翻译相关材料和检察官之间的来往备忘录等文件,以及帮助整理资料。由于人员紧张,张先生工作十分繁忙,一工作就是一整天。对于吃住的问题,张先生表示一切都由公家提供,没什么不习惯,跟着检察官一起吃,颇为讲究。


据张培基先生回忆,战后的东京早已被轰炸得一片狼藉,而令人称奇的是国际军事法庭所在的建筑却完好无损,与周围环境形成了鲜明对比。这栋楼战前是日本士官学校,战争期间是日本陆军军部。


由于工作允许到庭上观察审判情况,张先生亲眼看到了受审的28名日本战犯。他们面对法官分坐几排,后面还有一排美国宪兵监视他们。他们态度狡猾,拒不认罪,每人手里拿着一个布包,里面装的是受审时将用到的文件材料。整个审判尤其重视两个人:关东军司令板垣征四郎和特务头子土肥原贤二,其中土肥原贤二便是令中国百姓谈虎色变的“土二爷”。审判结果是7人绞刑,包括臭名昭著的东条英机、板垣征四郎、土肥原贤二和南京大屠杀制造者松井石根、外相广田弘毅。死刑犯后来都被关押在东京郊区的监狱里并被行刑。


审判期间尤其使张先生记忆深刻的一件事是末代皇帝爱新觉罗·溥仪出庭作证。溥仪于1945年被苏联红军带到苏联,后来中、美、苏商量好传唤他作证,起先并不知道自己证人身份的溥仪到庭以后“像看戏一样”。他一度害怕这一回来会被中国方面判刑,后来才了解到是要利用他控诉日本战犯。他穿着藏青西服,带着黑框眼镜,满口京腔,身后站着两个日本宪兵,后面还跟着一个苏联军人。溥仪讲述了日本人把他从天津弄到大连,再到长春做傀儡皇帝的事情。谈及日本人毒死了他患病的爱妻并强迫他娶日本老婆时,他更是怒不可遏,激动地拍着桌子。溥仪表示他作为名义上“伪满洲国”的“皇帝”,毫无自由,处处受限,“简直是猴戏”,以此控诉着战犯土肥原贤二等人的罪行。溥仪在军事法庭上连续作证8天,创下了证人作证的时长记录。审判结束后溥仪回国,中国政府对他很宽待,既往不咎。


张先生还谈及在2006年时,中国电影博物馆举办了电影《东京审判》的看片会,时任远东国际军事法庭中国法官的梅汝璈的儿子梅小璈和张培基教授作为亲历者,也被请到了现场。看罢电影,张教授提出了两点意见:一是战犯手里会拿布包、后面会站一排宪兵和法庭的真实布置等细节在电影里没有反映出来;二是法庭用语不够规范,例如每次开庭前有一位美国军官喊“全体起立”被翻译成 all personnel stand up;之后法官喊的“全体坐下”翻为 all personnel sit down。stand up 和 sit down在口语里很常见,但法庭上就应该用更正式的 rise 和 be seated。法庭用语与日常用语应该进行区分。张先生认为电影就要如实地反映历史,切不可随意更改。


在采访的最后,张培基教授特地提醒年轻人,不光要学习书本知识,更要多关注国内外大事,多读书报。


老先生一路走好

图片


来源:英语世界公众号


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