双语 | “近视,是扣分项吗?”

来源:CGTN 作者: 时间:2020/10/15

 

这几天,微博上一个关于视力的话题被刷上了热搜榜。


  事件的起因是山西省长治市的一项规定:从2022年开始,长治市中考将增设学生综合素质评价50分,其中身体素质占20分。在身体素质20分中,学生体重、裸眼视力情况各占5分。


  消息甫一传出,就引发了网友们的热议。

 

(图片来源:视觉中国)


  Short-sightedness, or myopia, is a very common eye condition that causes distant objects to appear blurry, while close objects can be seen clearly.


  The topic "short-sightedness" was recently trending on China’s Twitter-like platform Weibo after the introduction of a new policy.


  Unveiled by local education authorities in Changzhi, north China’s Shanxi Province, the policy rules that students shall be evaluated and marked for their levels of "physical fitness" during their entrance exam for senior high school, including eyesight and weight checks.


  The policy, which will take effect from 2022, aims at guiding young people to become more physically active, encouraging them to protect their eyesight and improve physical fitness, according to the local education authorities.


  有部分网友认为长治市的这一规定对于缓解学生近视现象可能会起到一定的积极引导作用。


  也有网友认为此举可能会导致不公平现象:比如有些学生近视是有先天性遗传因素或意外事故带来的损伤导致的;经济条件好的家庭可以带孩子做视力矫正手术,没条件做矫正手术的学生只能在考核中被“扣分”。


  Though some people perceived the decision as potentially beneficial in improving students’ awareness about protecting their eyesight, many sparked a social media outcry criticizing the new policy as "unfair." For example, some netizens pointed out that myopia could be genetic and some pupils might also get short-sighted as a result of accidents or diseases.


  裸眼视力考核如何“考”?


  据长治市教育局的介绍,裸眼视力分为三档,大于等于4.9为正常视力,得5分;4.6到4.8之间为中度近视,得4分;小于等于4.5为重度近视,得3分。


  此外,长治市教育局表示先天性近视的学生,家长可提供孩子自近视以来的医院就诊及治疗相关证明材料,学校审核公示无异议后可直接得5分;因意外事故导致裸眼视力受损的学生,可通过医疗部门出具诊断证明,学校审核公示无异议后也可以得5分。

 

(图片来源:视觉中国)

 


  For full five marks, students will be rated for three different levels of their eyesight. Those who are deemed as "seriously short-sighted" will get a three, the lowest score. Responding to concerns about fairness, the local education authorities said those students who develop short-sightedness because of genetic inheritance or accidents can still get full marks after they submit their diagnosis record issued by a medical practitioner.


  “人间马赛克”——近视问题须警惕


  面对公众的质疑,长治市教育局回应称这一举措“主要是想起到一个导向作用,引导青少年自觉加强体育锻炼、保护视力。”


  暂且不论此举最终效果如何,青少年近视问题近年来确实给社会敲响了警钟。


  在“视力考核纳入中考”这一话题的评论区,网友们的各种留言也可以看出如今近视问题的普遍性。


  “戴眼镜的已经成了多数,不戴眼镜的则是少数。


  “你见过现在几个学生不戴眼镜的?”


  “全班总共43个人,近视的就有35个人。”


  “出门不戴眼镜就一片模糊,就像到处都被打码了,简直就是人间马赛克。”


  ......


  而现实中的各项数据更为惊人。


  世界卫生组织2018年的一项研究报告显示,中国近视患者达6亿,青少年近视率居世界第一。


  国家卫健委2019年发布的相关调查数据显示,全国青少年总体近视率为53.6%。其中,高中生近视率达81%。


  Short-sightedness has become a big issue for Chinese people. A World Health Organization (WHO) report released in 2018 shows about 600 million Chinese, almost half the population, are short-sighted. China also has the highest myopia rate among teenagers in the world.


  Figures released by the National Health Commission of China last year show the average rate of nearsightedness among Chinese teenagers has reached 53.6 percent. Chinese senior high school students are the hardest-hit, as 81 percent of Chinese teenagers between age 16 and 18 have this eye condition.


  而近视后,随之而来的可不仅仅只是视线模糊、戴眼镜的麻烦,还可能会有病理性视力损伤及眼部并发症,如视网膜脱离、白内障、黄斑出血和黄斑变性、玻璃体液化变性、青光眼等


  超过600度的高度近视人群,发生白内障的风险会增加5倍,视网膜脱离的风险增加13倍,黄斑变性的风险增加800多倍。国际防盲协会已经用高度近视眼替代白内障作为当下全球导致失明的首要原因。


  从世界范围内来看,过去几十年各国的近视率都有不同程度的提高,近视俨然已成为一个全球性的公共卫生问题。


  2016年美国《眼科》杂志发布的一项预测显示:到 2050年,全世界约有48亿人近视,占世界人口49.8%;约有9.38亿人高度近视,占世界人口9.8%。


  The whole world also has witnessed a rapid increase in the prevalence of myopia.


  In 2016, the prestigious American journal Ophthalmology made an analysis about global trends in myopia. It predicted that by 2050, 4.8 billion people will be nearsighted. That’s 49.8 percent of the world’s population. And 938 million people, about 9.8 percent of the world population will have high myopia, where their nearsightedness puts them at risk for more serious eye problems like glaucoma, cataracts, macular degeneration and retinal detachment.


  “考核视力就能保护视力吗”?


  面对居高不下的近视率,像长治市那样把“视力纳入考核”能否解决问题?


  也许这一措施的“导向作用”一定程度上能引起人们对近视问题的重视,但正如网友们所说:“探究为何近视高发,以及如何避免近视高发才是根本。”


  世界卫生组织2019年发布的《世界视力报告》指出:“长时间呆在室内和大量从事‘近距离工作’活动,导致全球范围内越来越多的人有近视问题。”


  大量的研究结果也显示,全球近视眼的患病率迅猛增加的主要原因在于户外活动的减少、学习负荷的增加、电子产品的过多使用。


  According to the World Report on Vision released by the WHO in 2019, increased time spent indoors and increased "near work" activities are leading to more people suffering from myopia. Many research and studies also attribute the prevalence of myopia to a combination of decreased time outdoors, increased "near work" activities and overuse of electronic devices.


  在此背景下,如何引导和要求学校安排更多的体育锻炼和户外活动时间,减轻学生们课业负担,或许才是教育部门首先需要考虑解决的。

 

 

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