一周热词 | 量子计算原型机“九章”、“一箭双星”、珠峰新高程、2021年度流行色…

来源:译世界 作者:译世界 时间:2020/12/14

本周热词:


1. 量子计算原型机“九章”研制成功
2. 中国发射两颗引力波探测卫星
3. 珠穆朗玛峰新高程公布
4. 2021年度流行色公布
5. 霹雳舞列入巴黎奥运比赛项目

热词
01

量子计算原型机“九章”
quantum computer prototype "Jiuzhang"

A research team, including renowned Chinese quantum physicist Pan Jianwei, announced Friday a significant computing breakthrough, achieving a quantum computational advantage. The team established a quantum computer prototype, named "Jiuzhang", via which up to 76 photons were detected.
12月4日,中国知名量子物理学家潘建伟所在的研究团队宣布,中国计算领域迎来一项重大突破,实现了量子计算领域的全球领先。该团队成功研制出76个光子的量子计算原型机“九章”。

No traditional computer can perform the same task in a reasonable amount of time, and the speedup is unlikely to be overturned by classical algorithmic or hardware improvements, according to the team. 
团队称,没有任何传统的计算机能在相当时间内完成同样的计算任务,此次计算提速也不会被任何经典算法或硬件的升级所颠覆。

The team also said the new prototype processes 10 billion times faster than the 53-qubit quantum computer developed by Google.
团队也表示,这一新型原型机的计算速度比谷歌公司推出的53个量子比特的计算机要快一百亿倍。

Compared with conventional computers, Jiuzhang is currently just a "champion in one single area," but its super-computing capacity has application potential in areas such as graph theory, machine learning and quantum chemistry, according to the team.
团队称,相较于传统计算机,“九章”目前仅在单一领域内问鼎,但它的超级运算能力在图论、机器学习、量子化学等领域都具备应用潜力。

(英文来源:CGTN)

Vocabulary:

photon /ˈfəʊtɒn/  n. 光子;光量子

overturn  v. 倾倒,倾覆,翻掉;推翻,撤销(判决等)

algorithmic /,ælɡə'rɪðmɪk/  adj. [数] 算法的;规则系统的

qubit /ˈkjuːbɪt/  abbr. 量子位(quantum bit,量子计算器中的最小信息单位)

graph theory [数] 图论



热词
02

中国发射两颗引力波探测卫星
China launches two satellites for gravitational wave detection

China sent two satellites for the detection of gravitational waves into planned orbit from Xichang Satellite Launch Center in southwest China's Sichuan Province on Thursday morning.
12月10日凌晨,我国在四川西昌卫星发射中心将两颗引力波探测卫星成功送入预定轨道。

The two satellites, with the Gravitational Wave High-energy Electromagnetic Counterpart All-sky Monitor (GECAM) mission, were launched by a Long March-11 carrier rocket at 4:14 a.m. Beijing Time, according to the center.
据西昌卫星发射中心消息,此次发射的两颗卫星全称叫引力波暴高能电磁对应体全天监测器(GECAM),于北京时间10日4时14分由长征十一号运载发射升空。

The GECAM satellites will be used to monitor high-energy celestial phenomena such as gravitational wave gamma-ray bursts, high-energy radiation of fast radio bursts, special gamma-ray bursts and magnetar bursts, and to study neutron stars, black holes and other compact objects and their merger processes.
GECAM卫星将用于监测引力波伽马暴、快速射电暴高能辐射、特殊伽马暴和磁星爆发等高能天体爆发现象,推动破解黑洞、中子星等致密天体的形成和演化,以及双致密星并合之谜。

They will also detect high-energy radiation phenomena in space, such as solar flares, Earth gamma flashes and Earth electron beams, providing observation data for scientists.
卫星还将探测太阳耀斑、地球伽马闪和地球电子束等日地空间高能辐射现象,为进一步研究其物理机制提供科学观测数据。

The GECAM project is being carried out by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The Long March-11 rocket was developed by the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation.
GECAM项目是由中国科学院承担和实施,长征十一号运载火箭由中国航天科技集团有限公司研制。

Thursday's launch is the 355th mission of the Long March rocket series.
这次任务是长征系列运载火箭的第355次飞行。

(英文来源:CGTN)

Vocabulary:

gravitational wave  [相对][天] 引力波;[物] 重力波

Gravitational Wave High-energy Electromagnetic Counterpart All-sky Monitor (GECAM)  引力波暴高能电磁对应体全天监测器

carrier rocket  运载火箭

celestial /səˈlestiəl/  天空的;天上的;天体

gamma-ray burst  伽马射线暴

magnetar /ˈmæɡnɪtɑː/ 磁星;(有很强磁场的)中子星; 比脉冲星的磁场强出1000倍以上

neutron /ˈnjuːtrɒn/  中子

merger /ˈmɜːdʒər/  合并

solar flare  太阳耀斑;[天] 日晕

gamma /ˈɡæmə/  (Γ, γ) 希腊字母表的第3个字母

electron beams  电子束

aerospace /ˈeərəʊspeɪs/  n. 航空宇宙;[航] 航空航天空间



热词
03

珠穆朗玛峰新高程
Qomolangma remeasured

The new height of Mount Qomolangma, the world's highest peak, is 8,848.86 meters, according to a joint announcement by China and Nepal on Tuesday.
12月8日,中国与尼泊尔发表联合声明,宣布世界最高峰珠穆朗玛峰的最新高程为8848.86米。

A Chinese survey team reached the summit of Mount Qomolangma on May 27 and remeasured the peak height. Nepali surveyors reached the top of the mountain in May 2019.
5月27日,中国珠峰高程测量登山队登顶珠峰,重新测量了峰顶高度。此前,尼泊尔测量队在2019年5月登顶珠峰进行测量。

The latest measurement was markedly more scientific, reliable, and innovative than the previous one in 2005 thanks to the application of multiple homegrown technologies, including the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS), according to the Ministry of Natural Resources.
据自然资源部介绍,2020年珠峰高程测量科学性、可靠性、创新性较2005年明显提高,这得益于多项自主研发技术的应用,其中包括北斗卫星导航系统。

The measurement released in 2005 was 8,844.43 meters (rock height).
2005年,珠峰高程测量结果为峰顶岩石面海拔8,844.43米。

(英文来源:Xinhua)

Vocabulary:

Qomolangma /ˈtʃəʊməʊˌlɑːŋmə/  珠穆朗玛峰

markedly  adv. 明显地;显著地;引人注目地

innovative /ˈɪnəveɪtɪv/ adj. 引进新思想的;采用新方法的;革新的;创新的

homegrown  adj. (蔬菜、水果) 家种的; 本国产的


热词
04

2021年度流行色
2021 Color(s) of the Year

As 2020 nears its tumultuous end, the Pantone Color Institute has taken up its annual task of forecasting the color that will best reflect the year ahead.
2020年在动荡不安中走向尾声之时,潘通色彩研究所发布了代表2021年度趋势的色彩。

And, in a decision befitting a complex time, the color authority -- which standardizes swatches for the design industry -- has revealed not one, but two hues for its Color of the Year: the neutral Ultimate Gray and vibrant yellow Illuminating.
为了迎合这个复杂的时期,为设计行业提供标准色卡的色彩权威机构——潘通色彩研究所,本次发布了两个年度色彩:极致灰和荧光黄。
       
"It's a combination that speaks to the resilience, the optimism and hope and positivity that we need, as we reset, renew, reimagine and reinvent," said Laurie Pressman, vice president of the Pantone Color Institute, in a video call along with executive director, Leatrice Eiseman.
潘通色彩研究所副所长劳里?普雷斯曼在和执行董事莉雅翠丝?艾斯曼一起参加的视频通话中表示:“这个色彩组合代表了我们在重置、重启、重构和改造过程中所需要的适应力、乐观、希望和积极性。”

It's the first time an achromatic shade (gray) has been selected, and the second time two colors have been chosen. In 2016, the pale pink and blue hues, Rose Quartz and Serenity broke the norm when they were presented as a gradient.
这是潘通首次选择非彩色颜色(灰色)作为年度色,也是第二次在同一年度选出两个代表色。2016年潘通曾打破常规,选择水晶粉和宁静蓝两种色彩的渐变组合作为年度色彩。

(英文来源:CNN)

Vocabulary:

tumultuous /tjuːˈmʌltʃuəs/  嘈杂的;喧嚣的;热烈的;欢腾的;动荡的;动乱的;狂暴的

take up  开始从事;着手处理;讨论如何处理;开始工作;接受(建议或挑战);占用(时间、空间或精力)

befit  适合;对…相称

standardize /ˈstændədaɪz/  v. 使标准化;使符合标准(或规格)

swatch  (织物的小块)样品;布样

hue /hjuː/  颜色;色度;色调;信仰;观点

neutral /ˈnjuːtrəl/  中立的;持平的;无倾向性的;中立国的;中立的;中性的;不含褒贬义的;素净的;淡素的;不鲜艳的;中性的;非酸性又非碱性的;中性的;不带电的

vibrant /ˈvaɪbrənt/  充满生机的;生气勃勃的;精力充沛的;鲜艳的;醒目的;响亮的;洪亮的;强劲的

illuminate /ɪˈluːmɪneɪt/  照明;照亮;照射;阐明;解释;用彩灯装饰;使容光焕发

illuminating  富于启发性的

resilience /rɪˈzɪliəns/  快速恢复的能力;适应力;还原能力;弹力

achromatic /,ækrəʊ'mætɪk/  非彩色的

gradient /ˈɡreɪdiənt/  (尤指公路或铁路的)坡度,斜率,倾斜度;(温度、压力等的)变化率,梯度变化曲线


热词
05

霹雳舞列入巴黎奥运比赛项目
Breaking confirmed for Paris 2024 Olympic Games

Skateboarding, sport climbing, surfing and breaking have been confirmed as the additional sports proposed for inclusion at the Paris Olympic Games in 2024. The decision was announced by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the Paris 2024 Organizing Committee on Monday.
12月7日,国际奥委会和巴黎奥组委宣布,滑板、攀岩、冲浪和霹雳舞四个项目列入2024年巴黎奥运会正式比赛项目。

Skateboarding, sport climbing and surfing have already been included in the Tokyo 2020 program while breaking, having proved a great success at the 2018 Youth Olympic Games in Buenos Aires, will make its senior Olympic Games debut.
其中,滑板、攀岩和冲浪已经被列入2020年东京奥运会比赛项目。在2018年阿根廷布宜诺斯艾利斯青年奥林匹克运动会上,霹雳舞已经有过“惊艳”亮相。霹雳舞将在2024年首次亮相奥运会。

Organizers added "this new flexibility is part of the reforms of Olympic Agenda 2020," which features the games' historic 100 percent gender equality in athlete quotas, more youth-focused events and reductions in athletes and events.
主办方表示,此次新变化是《奥林匹克2020议程》改革方案的一部分。改革的内容包括在男女参赛运动员人数上实现奥运史上的男女平等、关注年轻人的需求,以及精简办赛等。

(中英文来源:CGTN)

Vocabulary:

sport climbing 竞技攀登

debut /ˈdeɪbjuː/(演员、运动员)首次亮相;初次登台(或上场)

quota /ˈkwəʊtə/ n. 定额,限额,配额;定量,定额,指标;(politics 政)(候选人当选所需的)规定票数,最低票数


词汇释义来源:牛津词典、柯林斯词典等

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