翻译必备!《中国的民主》白皮书双语全文来了(中)

来源:译世界 作者: 时间:2021/12/07

二、具有科学有效的制度安排

II. A Sound Institutional Framework


在中国,国家各项制度都是围绕人民当家作主构建的,国家治理体系都是围绕实现人民当家作主运转的,全过程人民民主具有完整的制度程序。这些制度程序,形成了全面、广泛、有机衔接的人民当家作主制度体系,构建了多样、畅通、有序的民主渠道,有效保证了党的主张、国家意志、人民意愿相统一,有效保证了人民当家作主。

In China, the people’s status as masters of the country is the bedrock of all the systems of the country, and underlies the operation of all the systems for state governance. Whole-process people’s democracy involves complete institutional procedures. These well-coordinated and comprehensive institutional procedures serve to put into place diverse, open, and well-organized democratic channels to ensure that the Party’s policies and the state will are integrated with the people’s aspirations, and that the people are masters of the country.


(一)实行人民民主专政的国体

1. The Governing System of the People’s Democratic Dictatorship


中国是工人阶级领导的、以工农联盟为基础的人民民主专政的社会主义国家。人民民主专政,体现中国的国家根本性质。

The Constitution describes China as a socialist country governed by a people’s democratic dictatorship that is led by the working class and based on an alliance of workers and peasants. The fundamental nature of the state is defined by the people’s democratic dictatorship.


中国坚持民主与专政有机统一,保证了人民当家作主。一方面,始终坚持人民民主专政中的“民主”,坚持国家的一切权力属于人民,保证人民依照宪法和法律规定,通过各种途径和形式,管理国家事务,管理经济和文化事业,管理社会事务;另一方面,始终坚持人民民主专政中的“专政”,充分履行国家政权的专政职能,依法打击破坏社会主义制度、颠覆国家政权、危害国家安全和公共安全等各种犯罪行为,维护法律尊严和法律秩序,保护国家和人民利益。民主和专政不是矛盾的,都是为了保证人民当家作主。打击极少数是为了保护大多数,实行专政是为了实现民主。

China upholds the unity of democracy and dictatorship to ensure the people’s status as masters of the country. On the one hand, all power of the state belongs to the people to ensure that they administer state affairs and manage economic and cultural undertakings and social affairs through various channels and in various ways in accordance with the Constitution and laws; on the other hand, China takes resolute action against any attempt to subvert the country’s political power or endanger public or state security, to uphold the dignity and order of law and safeguard the interests of the people and the state. Democracy and dictatorship appear to be a contradiction in terms, but together they ensure the people’s status as masters of the country. A tiny minority is sanctioned in the interests of the great majority, and “dictatorship” serves democracy.


(二)实行人民代表大会制度的政体

2. The Governing Structure of the System of People’s Congresses


人民代表大会制度,是适应人民民主专政国体的政权组织形式,是中国的根本政治制度,是中国人民当家作主的根本途径和最高实现形式,是实现全过程人民民主的重要制度载体。人民代表大会制度,坚持国家一切权力属于人民,最大限度保障人民当家作主,把党的领导、人民当家作主、依法治国有机结合起来,有效保证国家治理跳出治乱兴衰的历史周期率。人民代表大会制度,正确处理事关国家前途命运的一系列重大政治关系,实现国家统一有效组织各项事业,维护国家统一和民族团结,有效保证国家政治生活既充满活力又安定有序。

The system of people’s congresses, an organizational form of political power compatible with the governing system of the people’s democratic dictatorship, is China’s fundamental political system, and the ultimate approach and optimal solution to guaranteeing the people’s status as masters of the country. It is also an important institutional support to whole-process people’s democracy. Under this system, all power of the state belongs to the people to guarantee their status as masters of the country. At the same time, it integrates the Party’s leadership, the people’s principal position, and the rule of law, to help the country avoid the historical cycle of rise and fall of ruling orders apparent through the centuries of imperial dynasty. Under this system, all the major political relationships with a bearing on the nation’s future are properly managed, and all social undertakings operate under the effective centralized organization of the state. This maintains national unity and ethnic solidarity, and ensures that vigor, stability and order prevail in the country’s political life.


人民通过人民代表大会有效行使国家权力。人民代表大会代表人民统一行使国家权力,全国人民代表大会是最高国家权力机关,地方人民代表大会是地方国家权力机关。各级国家行政机关、监察机关、审判机关、检察机关都由人民代表大会产生,对人大负责、受人大监督。

The people exercise state power effectively through people’s congresses; people’s congresses exercise state power collectively on behalf of the people. The National People’s Congress (NPC) is the highest organ of state power. Local people’s congresses at all levels are local agencies of state power. All administrative, supervisory, judicial, and procuratorial organs of the state are created by the people’s congresses, to which they are responsible and by which they are supervised.


人民代表大会有立法权、监督权、决定权、任免权。

The people’s congresses have four main functions and powers:


全国人民代表大会及其常务委员会行使国家立法权,全国人民代表大会行使修改宪法以及制定和修改刑事、民事、国家机构的和其他的基本法律的权力;

• Legislation. The NPC and its Standing Committee exercise the legislative power of the state. The NPC exercises the powers and functions to amend the Constitution and enact and amend basic laws governing criminal offenses, civil affairs, state agencies and other matters;


全国人民代表大会对国家主席、副主席,国务院总理、副总理及其他组成人员,中央军事委员会主席及其他组成人员,国家监察委员会主任,最高人民法院院长,最高人民检察院检察长行使人事任免权;

• Appointment and removal of officials. The NPC exercises the powers and functions to appoint or remove the president and vice president(s) of the PRC, the premier, vice premier(s) and other members of the State Council, the chairperson and other members of the Central Military Commission, the chairperson of the National Supervisory Commission, the president of the Supreme People’s Court, and the procurator-general of the Supreme People’s Procuratorate;


全国人民代表大会对事关国家发展、人民利益的重大问题,包括国民经济和社会发展计划和计划执行情况的报告、国家的预算和预算执行情况的报告行使审查和批准权等;

• Decision-making. The NPC exercises the powers and functions to examine and approve major issues significant to national development and the interests of the people, such as the plan for national economic and social development and the report on its implementation, and state budget and the report on its implementation;


全国人民代表大会及其常务委员会行使对宪法实施、“一府一委两院”工作等的监督权。

• Supervision. The NPC and its Standing Committee exercise the right of overseeing the enforcement of the Constitution and the work of the State Council, the National Supervisory Commission, the Supreme People’s Court and the Supreme People’s Procuratorate.


地方各级人民代表大会及其常务委员会依法行使相应职权。人民代表大会制度,实现了广泛民主,使各级人民代表大会有高度的权力,保证了人民掌握和行使国家权力,国家和民族前途命运牢牢掌握在人民手中。

Local people’s congresses and their standing committees exercise corresponding powers and functions as prescribed by law. The system of people’s congresses makes extensive democracy possible by empowering people’s congresses at all levels, to ensure that the people hold and exercise state power, and that they keep the nation’s future firmly in their hands.


人大代表充分反映人民呼声。人大代表来自人民,横向上,来自各地区、各民族、各方面、各阶层;纵向上,全国、省、市、县、乡五级都有人民代表大会,具有广泛代表性。截至2020年底,全国共有人大代表262万名,其中县乡两级人大代表占代表总数的94.5%。人大代表充分发挥植根人民的优势,依法认真履职尽责,通过各种形式和渠道听取和反映人民群众的意见建议。

The deputies to people’s congresses are fully representative of the people. They come from all regions, ethnic groups, sectors and social groups, and function at national, provincial, city, county and township levels. At the end of 2020, 2.62 million people were serving as deputies to people’s congresses at all levels nationwide. Among them, those at county and township levels accounted for 94.5 percent of the total. Making full use of their close connections with the people, these deputies diligently fulfill their duties by soliciting and submitting the people’s suggestions and advice through various forms and channels.


一年一度的各级人民代表大会会议,乡、县、市、省、全国自下而上、逐级召开,使得人民群众意愿和呼声能够真实反映、向上传递。改革开放以来,每年的全国人大会议上,近3000名全国人大代表共商国家发展大计、共议民生热点问题,党和国家领导人当面倾听意见建议,让人民的所思所盼融入国家发展顶层设计。各国家机关依法认真研究办理人大代表提出的议案、建议,许多被吸纳进政策决策中。

The annual people’s congresses are first held from the grassroots upwards at township, county, city, and provincial levels and then at the highest national level, to take full cognizance of the people’s aspirations and report them to upper levels. Since the launch of reform and opening up in 1978, about 3,000 NPC deputies have gathered in the presence of the Party and state leaders at the NPC session each year to discuss plans for national development and problems affecting people’s lives, and to put the people’s expectations at the top of the agenda on state matters. Many of the motions and proposals put forward by deputies have been carefully reviewed and then included into policy decisions of state organs.


人民代表大会制度,为中国共产党领导人民有效治理国家提供了重要制度保障。党通过人民代表大会制度,使党的主张通过法定程序成为国家意志,使党组织推荐的人选通过法定程序成为国家政权机关的领导人员,通过国家政权机关实施党对国家和社会的领导,维护党和国家权威、维护全党全国团结统一。实践充分证明,人民代表大会制度是符合中国国情和实际、体现社会主义国家性质、保证人民当家作主、保障实现中华民族伟大复兴的好制度,必须长期坚持、全面贯彻、不断发展。

The system of people’s congresses has provided institutional guarantee for the CPC to lead the people in effectively running the country. It enables the Party to turn its proposals into state policies, and to place the candidates recommended by Party organizations into positions as state leaders through statutory procedures. It also empowers the organs of state governance to exercise the Party’s leadership over the country and society, to uphold the authority of the Party and the state, and to safeguard the unity and solidarity of the Party and the country. The system of people’s congresses is the optimal choice, in accord with China’s national conditions and realities. It embodies the socialist nature of the state and guarantees the people’s principal position and national rejuvenation. It must be fully implemented, further enriched, and maintained as a long-term institution.


(三)坚持和完善中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度

3. The System of Multiparty Cooperation and Political Consultation Under CPC Leadership


中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度是中国的一项基本政治制度。这一制度植根中国土壤、彰显中国智慧,又积极借鉴和吸收人类政治文明优秀成果,是中国新型政党制度。宪法规定,中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度将长期存在和发展。

The system of multiparty cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the CPC is a basic element of China’s political framework. The Constitution stipulates, “The system of multiparty cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the Communist Party of China will continue and develop long into the future.” A new model grown out of the soil of China, it also learns from other countries and absorbs the fruits of their political achievements.


在中国,除了中国共产党,还有八个民主党派(注①)。在人民民主的共同旗帜下,中国共产党与各民主党派长期共存、互相监督、肝胆相照、荣辱与共,形成了中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度这一具有鲜明中国特色和显著优势的新型政党制度。中国共产党是执政党,八个民主党派是接受中国共产党领导、同中国共产党亲密合作的参政党,是中国共产党的好参谋、好帮手、好同事。在中国,没有反对党,也没有在野党。中国既不是一党专政,也不是多党竞争、轮流执政,而是“共产党领导、多党派合作,共产党执政、多党派参政”。

In China, there are no opposition parties. But China’s political party system is not a system of one-party rule. Nor is it one in which multiple parties vie for power and govern in turn. It is a multiparty cooperation system in which the CPC exercises state power. In addition to the CPC, there are eight other political parties. The other parties participate fully in the administration of state affairs under the leadership of the CPC.


Under the shared banner of people’s democracy, and respecting the principles of long-term coexistence, mutual oversight, sincerity, and sharing the rough times and the smooth, the CPC and the other parties have created a new political party system with distinctive Chinese features and strengths.


The CPC is the governing party, and the other parties accept its leadership. They cooperate closely with the CPC and function as its advisors and assistants.


中国共产党和各民主党派、无党派人士以会议协商、约谈协商、书面协商等形式,就国家和地方重大政策和重要事务进行协商。中国共产党自觉接受各民主党派、无党派人士的民主监督。中国共产党和各民主党派、无党派人士在国家政权中合作共事,民主党派成员和无党派人士在各级人大代表、人大常委会组成人员及人大专门委员会成员中均占一定数量,一些民主党派成员和无党派人士担任国家机关领导职务。各民主党派、无党派人士紧紧围绕国家中心工作,积极参政议政、建言献策,为国家发展发挥作用。

Through forums, talks, and written and other forms of consultation, the CPC consults with the other parties and prominent individuals without affiliation to any political party (non-affiliates) on major national and local policies and matters. It willingly accepts the democratic scrutiny of the other parties and the non-affiliates. In the exercise of state power, the CPC works together with the other parties and the nonaffiliates. Members of the other parties and the non-affiliates account for a certain percentage of the total numbers of deputies to people’s congresses, the standing committees of people’s congresses, and the special committees of people’s congresses at all levels. Some of them occupy leading posts in state organs. The other parties and the non-affiliates actively deliberate on and participate in the administration of state affairs. They are valued advisors on key national programs and contributors to the development of the country.


中国人民政治协商会议是实行中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度的重要机构。人民政协作为专门协商机构,在协商中促进广泛团结、推进多党合作、实践人民民主,既秉承历史传统,又反映时代特征,充分体现了中国社会主义民主有事多商量、遇事多商量、做事多商量的特点和优势,是国家治理体系的重要组成部分和具有中国特色的制度安排。

The Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) serves as a key element of the multiparty mechanism. A specialized body for socialist consultative democracy, the CPPCC promotes unity, strengthens multiparty cooperation, and practices people’s democracy in the process of political consultation. It maintains the traditions of the past, and keeps pace with the times. It reflects the distinctive features and strengths of China’s socialist democracy – problems are solved through consultation. It is a key component of the state governance system, and a distinctively Chinese political institution.


在人民政协制度平台上,各党派团体、各族各界人士发挥在界别群众中的代表作用,通过全体会议、常委会会议、主席会议、专门委员会会议、专题协商会议、协商座谈会议等,开展提案、委员视察考察、专题调研、反映社情民意等经常性工作,对国家大政方针、经济社会各领域重要问题,在决策之前和决策实施之中进行广泛协商、平等协商、有序协商、真诚协商,提出意见建议。中国共产党采纳和集中他们的意见建议,各党派团体、各族各界人士接受党的主张并在各界别群众中宣传解释党的方针政策,增信释疑,最广泛地反映民意,最充分地集思广益,最大限度地凝聚共识,巩固团结奋斗的共同思想基础。

Through the institutions of the CPPCC, representatives from all political parties, people’s organizations, ethnic groups, and social sectors engage in political consultation. They carry out their routine duties through mechanisms such as plenary sessions, meetings of the standing committee, meetings of chairpersons, meetings of special committees, forums on specific subjects, and consultative seminars, and make proposals, conduct inspections and field surveys, and report on social conditions and public opinions on a regular basis. In this way, they conduct extensive, constructive consultations on an equal footing and in an orderly manner, and put forward opinions and suggestions on important national strategies and policies and major economic and social matters. The CPC collects these opinions and suggestions and adopts those which are sound, while the other participants accept the Party’s propositions and promote its guidelines and policies. In doing so, they increase trust and dispel doubts, convey the will of the people and draw on their wisdom, and build the broadest consensus, so as to form a shared ideological foundation for collective endeavors.


全国政协全体会议与全国人大会议每年同期召开,政协委员不仅要讨论政协的问题,还要列席全国人大会议,参加对有关法律修改、“一府两院”工作报告等的讨论,这样的制度安排真正实现了让人人起来负责、人人监督政府工作,形成了具有中国特色的“两会”式民主。

When the annual sessions of the NPC and the CPPCC National Committee (Two Sessions) are held concurrently each year, members of the CPPCC National Committee submit proposals for deliberation. They also sit in on NPC sessions to participate in the discussions on the amendments to laws and on the work reports of the central government, the Supreme People’s Court, and the Supreme People’s Procuratorate. This mechanism ensures that all the people can play a part in overseeing the work of the government, and forms China’s own model of democracy based on the Two Sessions.


中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度,真实、广泛、持久代表和实现最广大人民根本利益、全国各族各界根本利益,有效避免了旧式政党制度代表少数人、少数利益集团的弊端;把各个政党和无党派人士紧密团结起来、为着共同目标而奋斗,有效避免了一党缺乏监督或者多党轮流坐庄、恶性竞争的弊端;通过制度化、程序化、规范化的安排集中各种意见和建议、推动决策科学化民主化,有效避免了旧式政党制度囿于党派利益、阶级利益、区域和集团利益决策施政导致社会撕裂的弊端。

The system of multiparty cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the CPC is an extensive and reliable means of representing and fulfilling the interests of the maximum number of people of all ethnic groups and social sectors. It avoids the drawbacks of the old political party system that stood for only a small number of people and interest groups. It unites all political parties and the non-affiliates towards a common goal, effectively mitigating the risks of inadequate oversight in one-party rule, and the problems of continual transfers of governing parties and destructive competition in multiparty political systems. Through standardized institutional procedures and arrangements, it pools ideas and suggestions to ensure informed and democratic decision-making. It avoids the weakness of Western-style political party systems: When making decisions and exercising governance, political parties act in their own interests or the interests of the classes, regions and groups they represent, provoking division in society.


(四)巩固和发展最广泛的爱国统一战线

4. Broad Patriotic United Front


统一战线是中国共产党凝聚人心、汇集力量的重要法宝。在人民民主实践中,中国共产党始终把统一战线摆在重要位置,坚持大团结大联合,坚持一致性和多样性相统一,统筹做好民主党派和无党派人士工作、党外知识分子工作、民族工作、宗教工作、非公有制经济领域统战工作、新的社会阶层人士统战工作、港澳台统战工作、海外统一战线工作和侨务工作,团结一切可以团结的力量、调动一切可以调动的积极因素,广泛凝聚共识,寻求最大公约数、画出最大同心圆,不断促进政党关系、民族关系、宗教关系、阶层关系、海内外同胞关系和谐,最大限度凝聚起中华民族一切智慧和力量。

The united front is an important structure through which the CPC earns popular support and pools strengths. In practicing people's democracy, the Party has always placed the united front in an important position, striving to achieve great unity and solidarity and balance commonality and diversity. The Party has made coordinated efforts to unite the other political parties, the non-affiliates, intellectuals who are not CPC members, members of ethnic minorities and religious groups, people working in non-public sectors, people belonging to new social groups, compatriots in Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan, and overseas Chinese and returned Chinese nationals. It has combined all the forces that can be united and mobilized all positive factors to build a broad consensus, expand common ground, and achieve convergence of interests. In order to pool the wisdom and strength of the Chinese nation to the full, it has systematically promoted harmonious relations between political parties, between ethnic groups, between religions, between social groups and between Chinese people at home and overseas.


中国人民政治协商会议是中国人民爱国统一战线的组织。全国政协设34个界别,由中国共产党、各民主党派、无党派人士、人民团体、各少数民族和各界的代表,香港特别行政区同胞、澳门特别行政区同胞、台湾同胞和归国侨胞的代表以及特别邀请的人士组成。全国政协十三届一次会议共有委员2100多人,其中非中共党员占60.2%。这样的组织构成,体现了大团结大联合的重要特征,能够在热爱中华人民共和国、拥护中国共产党的领导、共同致力于实现中华民族伟大复兴的政治基础上,求同存异、聚同化异,最大限度地调动一切积极因素、团结一切可以团结的人,最大限度凝聚起共同团结奋斗的强大力量。

The CPPCC is an organization of the Chinese people's patriotic united front. It is composed of representatives from 34 sectors, including the CPC, the other political parties, the non-affiliates, people's organizations, ethnic minority groups and other sectors, compatriots from the Hong Kong and Macao Special Administrative Regions and Taiwan, returned Chinese nationals, and specially invited public figures. The First Session of the 13th National Committee of the CPPCC was attended by over 2,100 members, 60.2 percent of whom are non-CPC members. This demonstrates its important function as a center of unity and solidarity. It allows us to mobilize all positive factors and forces that cherish patriotism and support the CPC's leadership, and build a strong alliance for the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation by seeking common ground while setting aside differences.


(五)坚持和完善民族区域自治制度

5. The System of Regional Ethnic Autonomy


中国是统一的多民族国家,铸牢中华民族共同体意识,始终保持国家完整统一,实现各民族共同团结奋斗、共同繁荣发展,是中国共产党民族政策的方针宗旨。民族区域自治制度,是指在国家统一领导下,各少数民族聚居的地方实行区域自治,设立自治机关,行使自治权的制度。民族区域自治制度在宪法以及民族区域自治法中得到明确,是中国的一项基本政治制度。

China is a unified multiethnic state. The CPC's ethnic policies are built upon the goals of forging a keen sense of national identity, maintaining territorial integrity and national unification, and achieving common development and prosperity through the joint efforts of all ethnic groups. The system of regional ethnic autonomy means that areas with large ethnic minority populations can practice regional autonomy, establish autonomous organs, and exercise the power of self-government under the unified leadership of the state. This basic political system is specified in the country's Constitution and itsLaw on Regional Ethnic Autonomy.


中国实行民族区域自治,以领土完整、国家统一为前提和基础,体现了统一与自治的结合、民族因素与区域因素的结合,完全符合中国国情和实际。中国的民族区域自治,是在国家统一领导下的自治,各民族自治地方都是中国不可分离的一部分,民族自治地方的自治机关都是中央政府领导下的一级地方政权,都必须服从中央统一领导。

China's regional ethnic autonomy is autonomy under the unified leadership of the state. Territorial integrity and national unification are preconditions and foundations for regional ethnic autonomy, which combines unification with autonomy and ethnic factors with regional factors, and are thoroughly suited to China's realities. All ethnic autonomous areas are inseparable parts of the country, and all autonomous organs of these areas are local governments subject to the unified leadership of the central government.


实行民族区域自治,从制度和政策层面保障了少数民族公民享有平等自由权利以及经济、社会、文化权利。155个民族自治地方的人民代表大会常务委员会中,均有实行区域自治民族的公民担任主任或者副主任;民族自治地方政府的主席、州长、县长或旗长,均由实行区域自治的民族的公民担任。中国根据各少数民族的特点和需要,帮助各少数民族地区加速经济和文化发展。

Regional ethnic autonomy provides institutional and policy guarantees to ensure that ethnic minority citizens enjoy rights to equality and freedom, and to economic, social and cultural services. On all standing committees of people's congresses of the 155 ethnic autonomous areas, there are citizens from the local ethnic groups assuming the office of chair or vice chair; all governors, prefectural commissioners, and heads of counties of ethnic autonomous areas are citizens from the ethnic groups. The central government assists all ethnic minority areas in accelerating their economic and cultural development based on the characteristics and needs of the ethnic minorities there.


民族区域自治制度,极大增强了各族人民当家作主的自豪感责任感,极大调动了各族人民共创中华民族美好未来、共享中华民族伟大荣光的积极性主动性创造性。在这一制度框架下,中华民族大团结的局面不断巩固,各族人民交往交流交融日益广泛深入,平等团结互助和谐的社会主义民族关系不断发展,56个民族像石榴籽一样紧紧抱在一起,中华民族共同体意识日益牢固。

The system of regional ethnic autonomy has greatly increased the sense of pride and responsibility of people of all ethnic groups and stimulated their enthusiasm, initiative and creativity in jointly steering the course to a bright future. Under this institutional framework, communication and exchanges between ethnic groups, and socialist ethnic relations characterized by equality, unity, mutual assistance and harmony, have expanded. Ethnic unity has been reinforced, and a strong sense of national identity has been forged.


(六)坚持和完善基层群众自治制度

6. The System of Community-Level Self-Governance


中国人口多、地域广,基层治理差异大。中国实行以村民自治制度、居民自治制度和职工代表大会制度为主要内容的基层群众自治制度,人民群众在基层党组织的领导和支持下,依法直接行使民主权利,实现自我管理、自我服务、自我教育、自我监督,有效防止了人民形式上有权、实际上无权的现象。

Due to China's huge population and vast territory, there is great diversity in community-level governance. China applies a system of community-level self-governance represented by villagers autonomy, urban residents autonomy, and employees congresses. Under the leadership and support of community-level Party organizations, local residents directly exercise the democratic right to manage their own affairs by serving the community, undertaking self-education, and exercising public scrutiny. This effectively ensures that the people's rights are genuinely respected.


村(居)民自治。村(居)民在基层党组织的领导下,成立村(居)民委员会,依法直接行使民主权利,依法管理基层公共事务和公益事业。实行民主选举,由村(居)民选举村(居)民委员会组成人员;实行民主协商,由村(居)民采取多种形式开展协商议事;实行民主决策,由村(居)民通过村(居)民会议或村(居)民代表会议对社区公共事务和公益事业等作出决定;实行民主管理,由村(居)民讨论决定村(居)民自治章程、村规民约、居民公约等,并进行自我管理;实行民主监督,由村(居)民推选产生村(居)务监督委员会,监督村(社区)事务和村(居)务公开制度落实。截至2020年底,50.3万个行政村全部建立了村民委员会,11.2万个社区全部建立了居民委员会。

Villagers and urban residents exercise self-governance. Under the leadership of community-level Party organizations, residents in China's rural villages and urban communities establish villagers committees and residents committees, and directly exercise their democratic right to handle public affairs and public services in residential areas to which they belong:


•They hold democratic elections in which they elect villagers and residents committees.


•They conduct democratic consultation on local affairs in various forms.


•They practice democratic decision-making in handling community public affairs and public services through committee meetings and congresses.


•They carry out democratic management – they discuss and decide on their own rules on self-governance and codes of conduct and self-regulation, and run their affairs accordingly.


•They exercise democratic oversight – they elect village and urban community affairs oversight committees to supervise the handling of their community affairs and guarantee information disclosure.


As of the end of 2020, all the 503,000 administrative villages in China had established villagers committees, and all the 112,000 urban communities in the country had established residents committees.


企事业单位职工依法行使民主权利。企事业单位建立以职工代表大会为基本形式的民主管理制度,职工在企事业单位重大决策和涉及职工切身利益等重大事项上发挥积极作用;企事业单位推行职工董事、职工监事制度,全面实行厂务公开制度,探索领导接待日、劳资恳谈会、领导信箱等形式,反映职工诉求,协调劳动关系和保障职工合法权益,对单位生产和管理提出意见建议,为单位发展献计献策。企业工会委员会是职工代表大会的工作机构,现阶段,中国共有280.9万个基层工会组织,覆盖655.1万个企事业单位。

Employees in enterprises and public institutions exercise democratic rights. Enterprises and public institutions practice a system of democratic management whose basic form is employees congresses, so that workers and staff can play an active role in decision-making on important matters concerning their immediate interests. They are implementing a system of employees serving as board directors and board supervisors. They have all employed a system featuring open access to enterprise affairs and are experimenting with practices that include open days to communicate with leaders, employee-employer consultations, and letters and messages to senior executives. These efforts are designed to mediate labor relations, listen to workers' voices, protect their lawful rights and interests, and collect complaints and suggestions on the operations, management and development of these entities. Corporate trade union committees are the operating mechanism of employees congresses. At present, there are 2.81 million primary-level trade unions in China, covering 6.55 million enterprises and public institutions.


基层民主创新十分活跃。从城乡社区里的村(居)民议事会、村(居)民论坛、民主恳谈会、民主听证会到党代表、人大代表、政协委员联合进社区,从“小院议事厅”到“板凳民主”,从线下“圆桌会”到线上“议事群”,中国人民在火热的基层生活中,摸索创造了一个又一个充满烟火气的民主形式。人们通过这些接地气、聚人气的民主实践,围绕涉及自身利益的实际问题,发表意见建议,进行广泛协商,利益得到协调,矛盾有效化解,促进了基层稳定和谐。基层民主许多好的经验做法成为国家政策,为中国民主发展不断注入新的动力。

Democratic innovations demonstrate great vitality. The Chinese people have explored and initiated numerous popular and pragmatic grassroots practices – residents councils, residents workshops, democratic discussions and hearings, courtyard discussions, neighborhood meetings, offline roundtables and online group chats. They have arranged for representatives of Party committees, deputies to the people's congresses, and CPPCC members to visit rural and urban communities. All these down-to-earth and pragmatic forms of democracy encourage people to voice their opinions and suggestions and conduct extensive consultation on matters related to their vital interests. This helps to coordinate the interests of multiple stakeholders, mitigate conflict, and maintain social stability and harmony at the grassroots level. Many successful grassroots experiences and practices have eventually turned into national policies, injecting new vitality into the development of China's democracy.


基层群众自治制度,增强了基层群众的民主意识和民主能力,培养了基层群众的民主习惯,充分彰显了中国民主的广泛性和真实性。基层群众自治,使得社会细胞都活跃起来,使“微治理”富有活力、更有效率,为建设人人有责、人人尽责、人人享有的基层治理共同体提供了坚实制度保障。

The system of community-level self-governance has strengthened the public's ability to understand and practice democracy, demonstrating that China's democracy is extensive and genuine. Community-level self-governance energizes all the "cells" of society. It makes grassroots governance more vibrant and efficient, and provides a solid institutional guarantee for a grassroots governance system in which responsibilities are shared and duly fulfilled, and achievements are enjoyed by all.


三、具有具体现实的民主实践

III. Concrete and Pragmatic Practices


中国发展全过程人民民主,既有完整的制度程序,也有完整的参与实践。全过程人民民主,把选举民主与协商民主结合起来,把民主选举、民主协商、民主决策、民主管理、民主监督贯通起来,涵盖经济、政治、文化、社会、生态文明等各个方面,关注国家发展大事、社会治理难事、百姓日常琐事,具有时间上的连续性、内容上的整体性、运行上的协同性、人民参与上的广泛性和持续性,使国家政治生活和社会生活各环节、各方面都体现人民意愿、听到人民声音,有效防止了选举时漫天许诺、选举后无人过问的现象。

Whole-process people's democracy in China is a complete system with supporting mechanisms and procedures, and has been fully tested through wide participation. China's whole-process people's democracy is a combination of electoral democracy and consultative democracy, and is applied through a combination of elections, consultations, decision-making, management and oversight. It covers the economic, political, cultural, social, eco-environmental and other fields, with a focus on national development, social governance and people's lives.


Whole-process people's democracy is a comprehensive and coordinated system involving extensive and regular participation, ensuring that the people's voices are heard and their wishes are represented in every aspect of China's political and social life. Whole-process people's democracy prevents individuals from manipulating the political process to win elections, and leaves no room for politicians to shower promises while campaigning and break them all once elected.


(一)民主选举

1. Democratic Election


人民通过选举、投票行使权利,选出代表自己意愿的人来掌握并行使权力,是中国民主的一种重要形式,是人民实现当家作主的重要体现。

By exercising their right to vote in elections, the people elect those who represent their will to hold and exercise power. This is an important form of democracy in China, and a clear demonstration of the people's status as masters of the country.


中国的选举是广泛的,有国家机构选举、村(居)委会选举、企事业单位职工代表大会选举等,涵盖了国家政治生活和社会生活的各个方面;中国的选举是平等的,人民的选举权和被选举权得到充分保障,一人一票、票票等值;中国的选举是真实的,不受金钱操控,选民按照自己的意愿选出自己信任的人;中国的选举是发展的,选举形式手段随着经济社会的发展不断创新和丰富。

Elections in China are extensive and cover all aspects of the country's political and social life. They include elections to government institutions, villagers and urban residents committees, and employees congresses in enterprises and public institutions.


Elections in China are based on equality, and the people's right to vote and stand for election is fully guaranteed. Each person can cast one vote, and all votes are of equal value.


Elections in China are genuine and not manipulated by financial interests. Voters are free to vote for the candidates they trust.


Elections in China are progressing in a positive direction with the progress of the economy and society.


国家机构选举。国家机构选举是指,选举产生全国人民代表大会和地方各级人民代表大会,由各级人大选举产生同级国家机关领导人员。在中国,年满18周岁、具有中华人民共和国国籍、未被依法剥夺政治权利的公民,都有选举权和被选举权。从全国人大到乡级人大,五级人民代表大会代表均由民主选举产生,每届任期5年。按照普遍、平等、直接选举和间接选举相结合以及差额选举、无记名投票的原则,选民直接选举产生县乡两级人大代表,县级以上人大代表由下一级人大选举产生。各级国家机关领导人员均由同级人大选举产生或者决定任命。

Elections to state organs. These include elections to the NPC and the local people's congresses at all levels, and those in which deputies to people's congresses elect leading officials of state organs at the corresponding levels. All citizens of the PRC who have reached the age of 18 – with the exception of those persons deprived of political rights in accordance with the law – have the right to vote and stand for election.


In accordance with the principles of universal suffrage, equal rights, multiple candidates, and secret ballot, deputies to people's congresses at the township and county levels are elected directly by the public. Deputies to people's congresses at the city, provincial and national levels are elected by people's congresses at the next level below. All deputies are elected for a term of five years. Leading officials of state organs at various levels are appointed or elected by people's congresses at the corresponding levels.


基层选举。基层选举是中国最广泛、最生动的民主实践,包括村(居)民委员会选举和企事业单位职工代表大会选举。村(居)民委员会由主任、副主任和委员组成,村(居)民委员会选举与县乡人大选举同步进行。村(居)民依法定期选举产生村(居)民委员会成员。在企事业单位中,职工代表大会是职工当家作主、行使民主管理权力的机构,职工代表由全体职工通过民主选举产生。

Community-level elections. Elections at the grassroots level are the most extensive and dynamic form of democracy in China. They include elections of villagers committees, urban residents committees, and employees congresses in enterprises and public institutions.


Villagers and urban residents committees are composed of chairpersons, vice chairpersons and members, and the elections are held simultaneously with those at the township and county levels.


Employees congresses – elected by all employees – are the bodies through which employees exercise their democratic management rights and make their own decisions in enterprises and public institutions.


中国的民主选举是符合中国国情的,是与中国的发展阶段相适应的,是随着经济社会发展与时俱进的。几十年来,中国适时修改选举法,选举全国人大代表时,农村和城市每位代表所代表的人口比例从新中国成立初期的8∶1,到1995年的4∶1,再到2010年的1∶1,逐步实现了城乡人口的平等选举。人们的民主意识不断增强,参选率不断提高。改革开放以来,中国先后进行12次乡级人大代表直接选举、11次县级人大代表直接选举,选民参选率均保持在90%左右。

China's democratic elections are adapted to the country's national conditions and stage of socio-economic development. Over recent decades, theElectoral Law of the National People's Congress and Local People's Congresseshas been amended progressively. The ratio of deputy representation in people's congresses has been optimized – in 1953 there was an imbalance between urban areas and rural areas that gave urban residents eight times more representation than rural residents. By 1995 this ratio had fallen to 4:1, and by 2010 there was parity – urban and rural residents had equal levels of representation.


As the understanding of democracy has grown, so has the number of people participating in elections. Since the initiation of reform and opening up, China has held 12 direct elections to people's congresses at the township level and 11 direct elections to those at the county level, with a current participation rate of about 90 percent.


(二)民主协商

2. Democratic Consultation


有事好商量,众人的事情由众人商量,找到全社会意愿和要求的最大公约数,是人民民主的真谛。人民在通过选举、投票行使权利的同时,在重大决策前和决策过程中进行充分协商,尽可能就共同性问题取得一致意见。协商民主是中国民主独特的、独有的、独到的民主形式。

Whenever a problem occurs, those concerned should always hold deliberations in good faith. Matters involving many people are discussed by all those involved; to reach the greatest common ground based on the wishes and needs of the whole of society is the essence of people's democracy. The Chinese people widely exercise their right to vote in elections and undertake extensive deliberations before major decisions are made. Democratic consultation is a special feature of democracy in China.


具有深厚基础。协商民主源自中华民族长期形成的天下为公、兼容并蓄、求同存异等优秀政治文化,源自近代以后中国政治发展的现实进程,源自中国共产党领导人民进行不懈奋斗的长期实践,源自新中国成立后各党派、各团体、各民族、各阶层、各界人士在政治制度上共同实现的伟大创造,源自改革开放以来中国在政治体制上的不断创新,具有深厚的文化基础、理论基础、实践基础、制度基础。

Democratic consultation has been established on the basis of solid cultural, theoretical, practical and institutional foundations. It derives from the best of traditional Chinese culture, including such ideas as aspiring for the common good, mutual understanding and inclusiveness, and seeking common ground while setting aside differences.


It comes from years of tenacious struggle by the Chinese people led by the CPC.


It originates from the political system created by all parties, organizations, ethnic groups, social groups and people from all walks of life since the founding of the PRC.


It also stems from China's continuous innovation in its state institutions since reform and opening up.


形式广泛多样。在各领域各层级,人民群众就改革发展稳定的重大问题以及事关自身利益的问题,通过提案、会议、座谈、论证、听证、评估、咨询、网络、民意调查等多种途径和方式,在决策之前和决策实施之中开展广泛协商。涉及全国各族人民利益的事情,在全体人民和全社会中广泛商量;涉及一个地方人民群众利益的事情,在这个地方的人民群众中广泛商量;涉及一部分群众利益、特定群众利益的事情,在这部分群众中广泛商量;涉及基层群众利益的事情,在基层群众中广泛商量。

Democratic consultation takes many forms. In making and implementing decisions on major issues concerning reform, development and stability, and on matters bearing on the vital interests of the people, China conducts extensive consultations in all fields and at levels through various channels, including proposals, conferences, discussions, seminars, hearings, assessments, consultations, the internet, and opinion polls.


体系不断健全。中国不断完善协商民主的发展路径,探索形成了政党协商、人大协商、政府协商、政协协商、人民团体协商、基层协商、社会组织协商等协商渠道,推动协商民主广泛多层制度化发展。政党协商,是中国共产党就中共全国代表大会和中共中央委员会的有关重要文件、宪法修改、有关重要法律的制定和修改、国家领导人建议人选、国民经济和社会发展的中长期规划以及年度经济社会发展情况、关系改革发展稳定等重要问题、统一战线和多党合作的重大问题等,同民主党派开展协商;人大协商,是各级人大在依法行使职权中与有关国家机关、社会组织、专家学者、人民群众开展协商;政府协商,是各级政府在履职尽责中与人大代表、政协委员以及民主党派、无党派人士、相关人民团体、社会组织以及群众代表等加强沟通协商;政协协商,是在中国共产党领导下,参加人民政协的各党派团体、各族各界人士履行职能,围绕改革发展稳定重大问题等,在决策之前和决策实施之中广泛协商、凝聚共识;人民团体协商,是人民团体就涉及群众切身利益的实际问题,特别是事关特定群体权益保障的,加强与政府相关部门的协商,积极参与政协组织的协商活动;基层协商,是基层党组织、基层政府、基层群众性自治组织、经济社会组织和群众等,就基层社会发展及事关群众切身利益的问题开展协商;社会组织协商,是各类社会组织就更好为社会服务,积极开展和参与协商。这七种协商渠道,极大丰富了民主形式、拓宽了民主渠道、加深了民主内涵。

On matters that have a bearing on the interests of everyone, extensive consultations will be held throughout the whole of society; on matters that concern the interests of people in one specific region, consultations will be held locally; on matters that affect the interests of certain groups of people, consultations will be held among those groups; and on matters that concern the interests of a community, consultations will be held within the community.


The system of democratic consultation has improved. To promote the broad-based, multilevel and institutionalized development of consultative democracy, China has explored and expanded consultation channels to include consultations carried out by political parties, people's congresses, government departments, CPPCC committees, people's organizations, social organizations, and communities.


•The CPC and other political parties carry out consultations on major documents of the CPC National Congress and the Central Committee, the revision of the Constitution, the formulation and revision of major laws, the selection of candidates for state leaders, medium and long-term programs of socio-economic development, annual plan of socio-economic development, and major issues related to reform, development and stability, the united front, and multiparty cooperation.


•In exercising their functions and powers, people's congresses at all levels engage in deliberations with government departments, social organizations, experts and academics, and the general public.


•Governments at all levels, when performing their duties, strengthen communication with deputies to people's congresses, members of CP

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