翻译必备!《中国的民主》白皮书双语全文来了(下)

来源:新华网 作者: 时间:2021/12/07

四、广泛真实管用的民主

IV. Democracy That Works


完整的制度程序和完整的参与实践,使全过程人民民主从价值理念成为扎根中国大地的制度形态、治理机制和人民的生活方式。人民当家作主,具体地、现实地体现在党治国理政的政策措施上,具体地、现实地体现在党和国家机关各个方面各个层级工作上,具体地、现实地体现在实现人民对美好生活向往的工作上。民主的阳光照耀中华大地,中国人民享有广泛充分、真实具体、有效管用的民主。

With complete institutions and extensive participation, whole-process people's democracy has evolved from an idea into a system and mechanism of governance that has taken root in the soil of Chinese society and become part of people's lives. In practice, the principle of the people being masters of the country is manifested in the Party's governance policies and measures, in all aspects of the work of Party and state organs at all levels, and in the efforts to meet the people's expectation for a better life. The light of democracy has illuminated China's entire territory, allowing its people to enjoy extensive and tangible democratic rights.


(一)人民享有广泛权利

1. Extensive Rights of the People


中国宪法规定,国家的一切权力属于人民;人民依照法律规定,通过各种途径和形式,管理国家事务,管理经济和文化事业,管理社会事务。中国的政治权力不是依据地位、财富、关系分配的,而是全体人民平等享有的。国家权力不是为资本服务的,而是为人民服务的。

The Constitution stipulates that all power in the People's Republic of China belongs to the people, and that the people shall, in accordance with the provisions of the law, manage state affairs, economic and cultural undertakings, and social affairs through various channels and in various ways. China's political power is not linked in any way with personal status, wealth, or social relations, but is equally enjoyed by all the people. The state power serves the people, rather than capital.


中国实行公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展,按劳分配为主体、多种分配方式并存,社会主义市场经济体制等社会主义基本经济制度,国民经济命脉牢牢掌握在人民手中,人民当家作主具有坚实经济基础和物质保障。

China practices a socialist market economy in which public ownership plays the leading role alongside other forms of ownership. Distribution according to work is the mainstay, while other forms of distribution coexist alongside it. This ensures that the lifelines of the Chinese economy remain firmly in the hands of the people, providing solid economic and material foundations for the people to run their own country.


在中国,人民依法享有选举权和被选举权,享有对国家和社会事务的知情权、参与权、表达权、监督权,享有对任何国家机关和国家工作人员提出批评和建议的权利,享有言论、出版、集会、结社、游行、示威、宗教信仰等自由。人民既广泛参与国家、社会事务和经济文化事业的管理,也在日常生活中广泛充分行使民主权利,每个人都有多重民主角色,都享有相应民主权利。

In China, the people have the right to vote and stand for election. They enjoy the rights to be informed about, to be involved in, to express views on, and to supervise the state and social affairs. They have the right to criticize and make suggestions regarding any state organ or public servant. They enjoy freedom of speech, the press, assembly, association, procession, demonstration, and religious belief. The Chinese people take part in the management of state affairs and social, economic, and cultural affairs in an extensive manner; they also fully exercise their democratic rights in everyday life. Everyone plays multiple roles in advancing democracy, and enjoys corresponding democratic rights in the process.


在中国,人权得到充分尊重和有效保障。人民幸福生活是最大的人权。中国经济保持长期稳定快速发展,人民生活显著改善。中国建成世界上规模最大的社会保障体系,基本医疗保险覆盖超过13亿人、基本养老保险覆盖超过10亿人。中国全面建成小康社会,14亿多人民彻底摆脱了绝对贫困,正迈向共同富裕。中国人民的获得感、幸福感、安全感不断提升,生存权、发展权、健康权得到充分保障,经济、政治、文化、社会、环境等方面权利不断发展。

In China, human rights are fully respected and protected. Living a life of contentment is the ultimate human right. China's economy has maintained long-term, stable, and rapid growth, and people's lives have significantly improved. China has established the world's largest social security system. The number of people covered by basic medical insurance has surpassed 1.3 billion, and the number of those covered by basic old-age insurance has now exceeded 1 billion. China has completed the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects. The entire country has shaken off absolute poverty and embarked on the road to common prosperity. The people have gained a stronger sense of fulfillment, happiness and security. Their rights to subsistence, development and health are fully protected, and their economic, political, cultural, social, environmental, and other rights keep expanding.


中国人民享有的权利不断丰富发展。从新中国成立后在政治、经济平等基础上谋求生存发展,到改革开放后既追求物质富裕也追求精神富足,再到新时代打赢脱贫攻坚战、全面建成小康社会、扎实推进共同富裕、取得抗击新冠肺炎疫情重大战略成果,中国人民享有权利的内涵不断丰富、外延不断拓展,向着实现人的全面发展不断迈进。

The Chinese people can see their rights being steadily enriched and improved. After the founding of the PRC in 1949, they began to seek subsistence and development on the basis of political and economic equality; after the launch of reform and opening up in 1978, they began to pursue both material and cultural prosperity; in this new era, China has eliminated absolute poverty, completed the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects, made great strides towards common prosperity, and achieved remarkable successes in the fight against Covid-19. Throughout this course, the rights enjoyed by the Chinese people have expanded in scope and depth, and steady progress has been made in achieving the free and well-rounded development of the individual.


(二)人民民主参与不断扩大

2. Expanding Democratic Participation


人民只有在投票时被唤醒、投票后就进入休眠期,只有竞选时聆听天花乱坠的口号、竞选后就毫无发言权,只有拉票时受宠、选举后就被冷落,这样的民主不是真正的民主。在中国,民主观念深入人心,人民的民主参与广泛持续,民主实践深深融入人们的日常工作和生产生活,民主蔚然成风,社会充满活力。

If the people are awakened only to cast a vote but become dormant afterwards, that is no true democracy. If the people are offered great hopes during electoral campaigning but have no say afterwards, that is no true democracy. If the people are offered fulsome promises during electoral canvassing but are left empty-handed afterwards, that is no true democracy. In China, the concept of democracy has taken root in the people's minds, and the practice of democracy has become an integral part of daily life and work, resulting in wide and sustained democratic participation. Democracy has become the norm, injecting great vitality into Chinese society.


人民参与民主的意愿不断增强,参与的广度和深度不断拓展。人民既参与国家和社会事务管理,又参与经济和文化事业管理;既参与国家发展顶层设计的意见建议征询,又参与地方公共事务治理;既参与民主选举、民主协商,又参与民主决策、民主管理、民主监督;既通过人大、政协等渠道表达意愿,又通过社会组织、网络等平台表达诉求。从“数豆豆”(注②)到电子投票,从群众跑腿到“数据跑路”,民主参与的形式不断创新、渠道不断拓展。党和国家要做什么、如何做、做得怎么样,人民参与贯穿始终。

The Chinese people are showing greater interest in democratic participation, which is expanding in scope and depth. The people participate in the management of state affairs, social affairs, and economic and cultural affairs; they provide opinions and suggestions for the design of national development plans at the highest level, and also contribute to the governance of local public affairs; they take part in democratic elections, consultations, decision-making, management, and oversight; they express their aspirations and demands through channels such as the people's congresses and the CPPCC, and through platforms like social organizations and the internet. Continuous innovations in the forms and channels of democracy have broadened participation: Electronic voting has replaced "bean voting" [Before the founding of the PRC, the CPC carried out extensive democratic elections across the countryside in the base areas of resistance against Japanese aggression and liberated rural areas under its leadership. Back then, the overwhelming majority of peasants were illiterate. The Party therefore introduced a series of innovative methods to enable those who could not read and write to exercise their right to vote in the elections. The most celebrated was called "bean voting", a method using beans as ballots. A voter only needed to cast a bean into the bowl for the candidate of whom he or she was in favor. The candidate who got more beans would win the election. At that time, a folk rhyme was prevalent in those places: "Beans roll, beans vote, beans go into the right bowls."]; people no longer need to deliver their demands to government departments in person, but can turn to online channels. Public participation is seen throughout the process of determining what the Party and the government should do and how, and how to assess its results.


人民利益要求既能畅通表达,也能有效实现。民主,起始于人民意愿充分表达,落实于人民意愿有效实现。人民意愿只能表达、不能实现,不是真正意义的民主。在中国,人民的期盼、希望和诉求,从国家大政方针,到社会治理,再到百姓衣食住行,有地方说、说了有人听、听了有反馈。人民的意愿和呼声,经过民主决策程序成为党和国家的方针政策,并通过中央、省、市、县、乡镇各个层级的紧密配合、层层落实,通过各个职能部门之间主管、主办、协管、协办的分工合作、协调配合,通过决策、执行、检查、监督、问责等各个环节的相互配合、有机衔接,转化为实现人民意愿的具体实践。对于涉及自身利益的实际问题,人们通过信访平台、领导信箱、政务热线、网络“留言板”等提出意见和诉求,能够得到及时反馈和回应。

The people's demands can be freely expressed and effectively fulfilled. Democracy starts with the full expression of the people's wishes, but if people can only voice their wishes but have no way to fulfill them, that is no real democracy. China has ensured that its people have channels to express their aspirations, wishes and demands on issues ranging from important national strategies and policies to social governance and basic necessities of life, enabling their voices to be heard and their requests to be answered.


Through the democratic decision-making process, the people's aspirations and voices can become the guiding principles and policies of the Party and the state. These principles and policies embody the people's expectations and are implemented through cooperative and effective efforts by governments at central, provincial, city, county, and township levels, through the division of work and teamwork of departments responsible for leadership, management, coordination and support, and through the collaboration and synergy of such activities as decision-making, implementation, inspection, scrutiny, and accountability. Concerning problems directly impacting their personal interests, people can make suggestions and demands via channels like the online petition, "leaders' mailboxes", government service hotlines, and online message boards, which can enable timely feedback and responses.


(三)国家治理高效

3. Efficient National Governance


民主与国家治理紧密相关。民主的发展与国家治理的现代化相伴相生,相互作用,相互促进。绝无国家治理“失灵”“低效”,国内问题成堆,民主却是“世界样板”的荒谬现象。好的民主一定是实现良政善治的,一定是推动国家发展的。

Democracy and national governance operate in parallel. Progress in democracy and modernization of national governance are interdependent and mutually reinforcing. It is hard to see how a country can serve as a good example for the rest of the world if its own model of democracy is unsuccessful or inefficient in national governance. One essential feature of a good model of democracy is that it will promote sound governance and boost national development.


中国民主的高质量,促进了国家治理的高效能,提升了国家治理体系和治理能力现代化水平。中国的民主,充分彰显了人民的主体地位,极大增强了人民的主人翁意识,人民既是民主的参与者,也是民主的受益者,智慧力量充分激发,既为自己也为国家、民族拼搏奋斗。中国的民主,有效调节国家政治关系,发展充满活力的政党关系、民族关系、宗教关系、阶层关系、海内外同胞关系,增强民族凝聚力,最大限度避免了牵扯,切实防止了相互掣肘、内耗严重的现象,形成了安定团结的政治局面和团结干事的强大合力。中国的民主,把党的主张、国家意志、人民意愿紧密融合在一起,使得党、国家和人民成为目标相同、利益一致、相互交融、同心同向的整体,产生极大耦合力,形成集中力量办大事的制度优势,有效促进了社会生产力解放和发展,促进了现代化建设各项事业,促进了人民生活质量和水平不断提高。中国的民主,始终把中国人民利益放在第一位,有效维护了国家独立自主,有效维护了国家主权、安全、发展利益,有效维护了中国人民和中华民族的福祉。

High-quality democracy in China has improved the system, capacity and efficiency of national governance. Democracy has given prominence to the people's principal status and reinforced their sense of being masters of the country. The people are the builders and beneficiaries of democracy. They fully tap into their own wisdom and strength to create a better life and make the country stronger.


Democracy in China effectively regulates political relations and fosters vibrant relationships among political parties, ethnic groups, religions, social groups, and compatriots at home and abroad. It bolsters national cohesion by minimizing internal friction, maintains political unity and stability, and creates great synergy in developing the country.


Democracy in China gives full expression to the guidelines of the CPC, the will of the state, and the expectations of the people, uniting the Party, the government and the people behind shared goals, interests and aspirations. This generates a huge cohesive force that translates into one of China's great institutional strengths – the ability to pool resources to accomplish major initiatives. It has helped unleash and develop the productive forces, incentivize all sectors in the drive for modernization, and raise the quality of life.


Democracy in China has always put the people first and improved their wellbeing. It has safeguarded national independence and protected national sovereignty, security and development interests.


新中国成立70多年来,党团结带领人民,不断战胜前进道路上各种世所罕见的艰难险阻,成功走出中国式现代化道路,取得举世瞩目的发展成就,中国经济实力、综合国力、人民生活水平显著提升。对于中国这样一个人口多、体量大、人均资源禀赋处于世界较低水平的最大发展中国家,没有人民的主人翁地位和主人翁精神,没有亿万人民的团结奋斗,实现这样的发展是不可能的。中国的民主,真正把发展为了人民、发展依靠人民、发展成果由人民共享落到实处,充分调动起人民的主观能动性,这是中国之治的“密码”,是中国民主的力量。

Over the seven decades since the founding of the PRC, the CPC has led the people in overcoming formidable difficulties, opening a distinctive Chinese path to modernization, and achieving remarkable successes. There has been a marked increase in China's economic and composite national strength, and a notable improvement in the people's living standards.


China is the largest developing country. It hosts one fifth of the world population, but its per capita resource endowment is low. Its success today would have been impossible without the people's determination to run their own country and create a better life for themselves. Democracy in China means people-centered development that fully mobilizes the initiative of the people, relies on their strength, and ensures that all share in the benefits. This is the key to sound governance and the fount of democracy in China.


(四)社会和谐稳定

4. Social Stability and Harmony


民主是人类社会进步的产物和标志。发展民主,要推动社会向着自由、平等、公正、文明、团结、和谐的方向前行。好的民主,应凝聚社会共识,而不是造成社会撕裂和冲突;应维护社会公平正义,而不是导致社会阶层和利益固化;应保持社会稳定有序,而不是带来混乱和动荡;应让社会充满向美向善向上的正能量,而不是充斥假恶丑的负能量。

Democracy is both a result and a marker of social progress. Democracy can only thrive in a society based on freedom, equality, justice, civility, unity and harmony. A good model of democracy should build consensus rather than creating social rifts and conflicts, safeguard social equity and justice rather than widening social disparities in favor of vested interests, maintain social order and stability rather than causing chaos and turmoil, and inspire positivity and appreciation of the good and the beautiful rather than instigating negativity and promoting the false and the evil.


中国国情复杂,治理难度世所罕见。中国的人民民主,实现各方面意志和利益的协调统一,实现各方面在共同思想、共同利益、共同目标基础上的团结一致,人民安居乐业、心情舒畅,社会和谐稳定、生机勃勃。中国用几十年时间走过了西方发达国家几百年走过的工业化历程,在剧烈的社会变革中,没有发生后发国家在现代化进程中容易出现的社会动荡,不仅创造了经济快速发展奇迹,也创造了社会长期稳定奇迹。中国人民经历了几千年历史上个人自由的最大发展,思想可以自由地表达,人员可以自由地流动,亿万人民的创新源泉充分涌流、创造活力竞相迸发。今天的中国,人们自由自在地穿梭于城乡之间、城市之间;每天有1.6万户企业诞生;10亿网民通过网络了解天下大事、进行交流、表达观点……中国社会开放自由,但始终保持了社会团结和谐、稳定有序。人民民主既是中国社会进步的推进器,也是中国社会进步的润滑剂。

China's complex national conditions pose a set of unique challenges in governing the country. Through people's democracy, China has balanced the demands and interests of all social groups and strengthened national unity based on their shared ideas, interests and goals. The people can live and work in contentment, in a stable, vibrant and harmonious social environment.


In just a few decades, China has gone through a process of industrialization that took the developed countries centuries to complete. Despite undergoing this dramatic transformation, it has avoided the social unrest which has afflicted many late-industrializing economies in the process of modernization. Instead, it has maintained rapid economic growth and lasting social stability.


In China, personal liberty has developed to an extent never before seen in several thousand years of history. Creativity and potential for innovation have been fully unleashed, and people enjoy freedom of speech and mobility.


Every day in China, people travel freely across the country; 16,000 new companies are created; 1 billion people surf the internet, accessing news, communicating with other people, and expressing their views.


While China has become an open and free society, it has maintained order and stability and promoted unity and harmony. People's democracy is the propellant as well as the lubricant for China's social progress.


(五)权力运用得到有效制约和监督

5. Effective Constraint and Supervision of the Exercise of Power


权力是把“双刃剑”。权力在有效制约和监督下运行才能实现民主、造福人民,权力失去约束、恣意妄为必然破坏民主、危害人民。中国不断加强对权力运行的制约和监督,始终坚持公权力姓公,始终坚持权为民所用,确保人民赋予的权力始终用来为人民谋幸福。

Power is a double-edged sword. It can only contribute to democracy and benefit the people when it is exercised under effective constraints and supervision. Unchecked, it is always likely to run out of control, sabotage democracy, and harm the people. In China, the exercise of power has been brought under growing control and supervision. Public power, entrusted by the people, is and will always be exercised for the public good.


把权力关进制度的笼子里。加强对权力的制约和监督,制度具有根本性、全局性、稳定性和长期性。持续推进依规治党,持续推进依法治国、依法执政、依法行政,依法设定权力、规范权力、制约权力、监督权力,让权力在阳光下运行。健全完善党内法规制度体系,严明纪律规矩,使党的各级组织和党员干部都在纪律规矩范围内活动。普遍实行领导干部任期制,实现了国家机关和领导层的有序更替。加强对领导干部特别是高级领导干部的管理,严格规范工作和生活待遇,坚决防止形成特权阶层。健全党和国家监督制度,坚持和完善党和国家监督体系,完善党务、政务、司法和各领域办事公开制度,保证党和国家领导机关和人员在法定的“权力清单”和“责任清单”范围内、依照法定程序开展工作,最大限度防止权力出轨、个人寻租。

Restraining power in an institutional cage. Checks on and supervision over power are being strengthened under solid institutions, ensuring measures against corruption are thorough, all-encompassing, consistent and long-lasting. Ongoing efforts have been made to govern the CPC by regulations, and to promote law-based governance, law-based exercise of state power, and law-based government administration. Power is prescribed by law, and regulated, constrained, and supervised by legal means, to ensure it is exercised transparently. The CPC has taken measures to strengthen its regulations, and requires all its members and organizations to act within the scope of Party discipline and rules. Officials' term of office has been introduced for leadership positions, ensuring the orderly transition of leadership personnel in state organs. Management of officials, especially high-ranking officials, has been strengthened, with strict and clearly-defined rules over their incomes and entitlements to prevent the evolution of a privileged elite. The supervisory systems of the Party and the state have been improved; the Party, the government, the judiciary, and all sectors have become more transparent in handling affairs; leading Party and state organs and their personnel work within their statutory limits, with clear powers and responsibilities and following statutory procedures. All this prevents rent-seeking and ensures that the exercise of power does not stray beyond the proper boundaries.


坚决反对和惩治腐败。腐败是人民民主的大敌。中国以“得罪千百人、不负十四亿”的鲜明态度,坚定不移推进反腐败斗争。坚持系统施治、标本兼治,不敢腐、不能腐、不想腐一体推进,惩治震慑、制度约束、提高觉悟一体发力。坚持反腐败无禁区、全覆盖、零容忍,坚持重遏制、强高压、长震慑,坚持受贿行贿一起查,坚持有案必查、有腐必惩,以猛药去疴、重典治乱的决心,以刮骨疗毒、壮士断腕的勇气,坚定不移“打虎”“拍蝇”“猎狐”,以雷霆之势、霹雳手段惩治腐败,持续形成强大震慑,反腐败斗争取得压倒性胜利并全面巩固。在解决腐败这个古今中外治国理政的顽疾方面,中国不仅有鲜明态度,更有实际行动。

Fighting and punishing corruption. Corruption is the arch-enemy of people's democracy. The Chinese government is determined to honor its commitment to 1.4 billion Chinese people by fighting corruption. With systemic efforts to address both the symptoms and root causes, the awareness, ability and resolve to resist corruption form an integral, coordinated whole. While punishments are meted out to deter crime, institutional checks and personal commitment to staying clean also play a role. No refuge has been excluded from the scope, no ground left unturned, and no tolerance shown in the fight against corruption. China will continue to impose tight constraints, maintain a tough stance and long-term deterrence, and punish both those who take bribes and those who offer them. No case of corruption will escape investigation and no corrupt official will go unpunished. Just as a heavy dose of medicine will be taken to treat a serious disease, China will fight with all the means necessary to "hunt down tigers", "swat flies", "chase foxes" and mete out severe punishments to corrupt officials – big or small, in China or seeking refuge overseas. Strong, decisive measures have struck down corruption like thunder, forming a powerful deterrence that has helped to consolidate China's sweeping victory in the fight against corruption. To solve this persistent malaise, a thorn in the flesh of all governments regardless of time or place, China has taken a clear stance and responded with resolute action.


评判一种民主形式好不好,实践最有说服力,人民最有发言权,归根结底要看能不能让人民过上好日子。中国的民主行不行、好不好,归根结底要看中国人民满意不满意、中国人民拥护不拥护。有数据显示,近年来,中国人民对中国政府的满意度每年都保持在90%以上,这是中国民主具有强大生命力最真实的反映。中国的民主道路走得通、走得好,中国人民将沿着这条道路坚定走下去。

Whether a model of democracy works should be tested in actual practice and judged by the people. Whether China's model of democracy is successful should be judged by its people. It all boils down to whether the people can enjoy a good life. Surveys have shown that the level of public satisfaction with the government has remained above 90 percent for many years. This provides unequivocal evidence of the efficacy and vitality of democracy in China. The Chinese people will continue firmly on the path they have chosen to achieve greater democracy.


五、丰富人类政治文明形态

V. A New Model of Democracy


民主是人类社会历经千百年探索形成的政治形态,在人类发展进程中发挥了重要作用。但是,20世纪以来,在波涛汹涌的民主化大潮中,有的国家停滞不前,有的国家陷入动荡,有的国家分崩离析。当今世界,既面临“民主过剩”“民主超速”,也面临“民主赤字”“民主失色”。民主怎么了?民主还管用吗?回答“民主之问”,廓清“民主迷思”,关乎世界和平发展,关乎人类文明未来。一些国家的民主化出现挫折甚至危机,并非民主本身之错,而是民主实践出现了偏差。

Democracy is a political form that has taken shape over the course of thousands of years. It has played a significant role in human development. Since the onset of the 20th century, democracy has made little progress in some countries, and others have found themselves in a state of turmoil and even have split apart. Today's world is facing challenges of excessive democracy, democracy implemented in great haste, democratic deficit and fading democracy. What has happened to democracy? Does it still work? The answers to these questions will influence world peace and development and the future of all civilizations. There is nothing wrong with democracy per se. Some countries have encountered setbacks and crises in their quest for democracy only because their approach was wrong.


中国的民主经历了选择、探索、实践与发展的艰辛历程。中国基于本国国情发展全过程人民民主,既有着鲜明的中国特色,也体现了全人类对民主的共同追求;既推动了中国的发展与中华民族的复兴,也丰富了人类政治文明形态。

In promoting democracy, China has undergone a difficult process of selection, experimentation, practice and development. China has created and developed whole-process people's democracy in line with its national conditions. This is a form of democracy with distinctive Chinese features which at the same time reflects humanity's universal desire for democracy. It has fueled the development of the country and driven the revitalization of the nation. It has contributed a new model to the international political spectrum.


(一)为人类民主事业发展探索新的路径

1. Exploring New Paths to Democracy


一个国家在现代化进程中,实现民主发展与政治稳定、社会进步的良性互动,极其重要,也极为不易。

It is extremely important, yet also very difficult, for a country on the road to modernization to promote democracy while ensuring political stability and social progress.


中国的现代化,没有走西方老路,而是创造了中国式现代化道路;没有照搬照抄西方民主模式,而是创造了中国式民主。占世界人口近五分之一的14亿多中国人民真正实现当家作主,享有广泛权利和自由,提振了发展中国家发展民主的信心,为人类民主事业发展探索了新的路径。这是中国对人类政治文明的重大贡献,也是人类社会的巨大进步。

China did not follow the established path of Western countries in its modernization drive. Similarly, China did not duplicate Western models of democracy, but created its own. Now, the entire Chinese population, almost one fifth of the world's total, enjoys extensive rights and freedoms. This is most encouraging to developing countries and greatly enhances their confidence in developing their own democracy. China's new approach to democracy represents a significant contribution to international politics and human progress.


人民当家作主,是中国民主的初心。中国在发展民主的进程中,也走过弯路,遇到过挫折,但始终坚守初心,不动摇、不偏移、不走样。今天的中国,人民当家作主的内涵不断丰富、渠道不断拓宽、效能不断提升,中国民主不断向前推进。

The original aspiration of China's democracy was to ensure the people's status as masters of the country. China's path to democracy has been rocky and tortuous. Nevertheless, the nation has remained unshaken in its determination to pursue democracy based on its original aspiration. In today's China, the goal of ensuring the people's status as masters of the country has grown richer in content, wider in channels, and greater in impact, driving democracy in China onward.


树立正确的民主观,并一以贯之地坚持、发展与创新,是发展民主的首要,是实现民主的“总钥匙”和“总开关”。真民主、好民主,要做到人民当家作主,人民不仅有选举、投票的权利,也有广泛参与的权利;不仅能表达自己的意愿,也能有效实现;不仅推动国家发展,也共享发展成果。

An accurate understanding and a determination to forge ahead are preconditions and the key for realizing, developing, and enriching democracy. A sound and genuine democracy must allow the people to become masters of the country. It must allow them to enjoy the right to stand for election, the right to vote, and the right to extensive participation. It must allow them the right to express their expectations and the right to have those expectations fulfilled. It must allow them the right to contribute to national development and the right to share the fruits of development.


(二)走符合国情的民主发展道路

2. Following the Most Suitable Path to Democracy


民主是多样的,实现民主的道路并非只有一条。各国的历史文化不同、现实国情不同,民主的形式选择必然不同。照搬照抄其他国家的民主模式,必然导致水土不服、弊病丛生,甚至陷入政治动荡、社会动乱、人民流离失所。

Democracy is rich in form, and there are many ways to achieve it. Countries with different histories, cultures and national conditions may choose different forms of democracy. Blindly copying other models of democracy is a problematic endeavor – it risks creating cultural conflict, political volatility or even social turmoil and causing great pain to its people.


对中国这样一个大国来说,选择什么样的民主发展道路至关重要。中国注重吸收借鉴人类政治文明一切有益成果,但绝不照抄照搬别国民主模式;欢迎一切有益的建议和善意的批评,但绝不接受“教师爷”般颐指气使的说教。坚持中国的民主按照中国的特点、中国的实际来设计和发展,坚定不移走符合国情的民主发展之路,是中国民主发展的一条基本经验。

It is of vital importance for China to choose a path to democracy suited to a vast country with a large population. China draws on each and every political achievement of other countries, but does not imitate any of their models of democracy. China welcomes all constructive suggestions and well-intentioned criticism, but rejects any form of overbearing lecture. China must devise the most suitable form of democracy in accordance with its characteristics and realities – a basic principle China adheres to for developing democracy.


中国发展民主,始终立足人口多、基础弱、底子薄的基本国情,正确把握民主与发展的关系,始终把发展作为第一要务,以民主促进国家发展、在国家发展基础上推进民主,不离开发展空谈民主;始终传承5000年中华文明,注重从中华优秀传统文化中汲取智慧和养分;始终准确把握中国所处的历史阶段,紧密结合经济社会发展水平推进民主,积极稳妥、稳中求进,不好高骛远,不急于求成,不犯颠覆性错误;始终坚持问题导向,不断发现问题、善于解决问题,每解决一个问题就把民主建设向前推进一步,不断推动民主制度体系更加成熟、更加定型。

As a populous country long plagued by weak economic foundations, China strives to strike a balance between democracy and development. The priority always rests with development, which is facilitated by democracy and in turn boosts the development of democracy. China has never indulged in empty talk on democracy regardless of a country's development stage.


Always drawing wisdom and strength from its 5,000-year-old culture and fine traditions, and based on a correct understanding of its current development stage and its economic and social conditions, China has made active and prudent efforts to advance democracy. To avoid fatal errors, it never seeks unrealistic goals or over-extends itself in pursuit of quick success. Instead, it focuses on identifying and resolving each and every problem, and presses ahead with democracy step by step to make the system more mature and well-defined.


世界上不存在完全相同的政治制度,也不存在适用于一切国家的政治制度模式。各国应根据自身特点选择符合自身现代化发展的民主形态,学习借鉴而不是照抄照搬。适合的就是最好的。只有扎根本国土壤、汲取充沛养分的民主,才能不断发展完善,才最可靠也最管用。外部干涉和所谓的“民主改造”贻害无穷。中国不寻求输出中国的“民主模式”,也绝不接受任何外部势力企图改变中国的制度模式。中国坚定支持各国自主选择本国的民主发展道路,反对外部势力以“民主”为借口干涉他国内政。

There are no identical political systems in the world, neither is there a political model that fits all. Countries can borrow from the successful experience of others and develop forms of democracy suited to their own modernization process, but they should not simply duplicate other systems or models. The model that suits best is always the most appropriate. Only democracy rooted in a country's unique social environment has proven to be reliable and effective, and can thrive and progress. External interference and "democratic transformation" bring nothing but endless trouble. China never seeks to export the Chinese model of democracy, nor does it allow any external force to change the Chinese model under any circumstances. It firmly supports the independent choice by every country of its own path to democracy, and opposes any interference in others' internal affairs on the pretext of "bringing democracy".


(三)推动国际关系民主化

3. Promoting Democracy in International Relations


民主在一国内体现为人民当家作主,在国家间则体现为国际关系民主化。一个国家的尊严应该得到尊重,主权、安全和发展利益不应受到侵犯。以自己的尺度评判他国,甚至通过颜色革命、使用武力迫使他国照搬自己的政治制度、民主模式,这是反民主的。

Democracy manifests itself in two dimensions: On a national level, it refers to the people's status as masters of their own country; on an international level, it refers to the democratic relations between nations.


A country's dignity should be respected, and its sovereignty, security and development interests are inviolable. To judge other countries by one's own yardstick, or force them to duplicate one's own political system or democratic model through color revolution or the threat of force are undemocratic in themselves.


中国是民主的忠实追求者、积极推动者和模范实践者,不但在本国积极发展人民民主,而且在国际上大力推动国际关系民主化。面对世界百年未有之大变局,中国高举和平、发展、合作、共赢的旗帜,提出构建人类命运共同体理念,推动建设相互尊重、公平正义、合作共赢的新型国际关系。面对全球范围内经济、科技等领域竞争,中国不是把对方视为对手,而是视为伙伴;不是搞冷战和对抗、控制和操纵,而是促进交流合作、实现互利共赢。中国积极发展全球伙伴关系,构建总体稳定、均衡发展的大国关系框架,按照亲诚惠容理念和与邻为善、以邻为伴周边外交方针深化同周边国家关系,秉持正确义利观和真实亲诚理念加强同发展中国家团结合作。中国推动共建“一带一路”走深走实,与其他国家加强交流合作、共享发展机遇,“一带一路”成为广受欢迎的国际公共产品。

China is a faithful and exemplary actor in pursuing, exploring and practicing democracy. It endeavors to increase democracy both within its own territory and between nations. At a time of momentous change of a scale unseen in a century, China champions peace, development, cooperation and mutual benefit. China proposes to build a global community of shared future, and presses for a new model of international relations based on mutual respect, fairness and justice, and win-win cooperation. At a time of intense global competition in the economic, scientific, technological and other fields, China regards other countries as partners rather than rivals – it does not engage in cold war, confrontation, control or manipulation, but rather promotes mutually beneficial exchanges and cooperation.


China has actively developed global partnerships. It works to establish a framework of major-country relations that is generally stable and balanced. In developing relations with neighboring countries, it applies the principles of amity, sincerity, inclusiveness, mutual benefit, and the policy of promoting friendly and neighborly ties. In strengthening cooperation with other developing countries, China pursues the greater good and shared interests, and applies the principles of sincerity, affinity, good faith and real results. China has strengthened exchanges and cooperation with countries participating in the Belt and Road Initiative and shared the gains with them, expanding the initiative into more regions and turning it into a well-received global public good.


当今世界,民主平等、公平正义远未实现。少数国家漠视国际公理、践踏国际准则、违背国际民意,公然侵犯他国主权,干涉他国内政,动辄以大欺小、恃强凌弱,把“地球村”变成弱肉强食的原始丛林。面对充满挑战的世界,各国应大力弘扬民主精神,不论大小、强弱、贫富,在国际关系中一律平等。大国要有大国的样子,要以人类前途命运为要,对世界和平与发展担负更大责任,而不是依仗实力搞唯我独尊、霸凌霸道。世界的命运应由各国人民共同掌握,国际规则应由各国共同制定,全球事务应由各国共同治理,发展成果应由各国共同分享。

The present world is far from fair and just, equal and democratic. A small number of countries ignore international law, flout international justice, disdain international public opinion, flagrantly infringe upon the sovereignty of other countries, and interfere with others' internal affairs. They frequently abuse and dictate to smaller and weaker countries, turning the "global village" into a primeval jungle where the strong prey on the weak. In a world confronted by challenges, all countries, large or small, strong or weak, rich or poor, are equals, and should uphold the principle of democracy in international relations. Powerful countries should behave as befits their status, make the future of humanity their priority, and shoulder greater responsibility for world peace and development, rather than wielding their power in pursuit of supremacy or hegemony. The future of the world should rest in the hands of all peoples of the world. International rules should be made by all countries, global affairs should be governed by all parties, and the fruits of development should be shared by all.


(四)加强文明交流互鉴

4. Increasing Exchanges and Mutual Learning Between Civilizations


实现民主有多种方式,不可能千篇一律。人类民主事业的真正阻碍,不是民主模式的差异,而是对他国民主探索的傲慢、偏见和敌视,是把本国民主模式强加于人的“唯我独尊”。人类政治文明的百花园之所以绚烂多彩,正是由于不同文明各有千秋。各国应坚持平等非歧视原则,相互尊重彼此的民主模式,既致力于本国探索,又加强交流互鉴;既各美其美,又美美与共,共同推动人类文明向前发展。

There is no single road to democracy. The true barrier to democracy lies not in different models of democracy, but in arrogance, prejudice and hostility towards other countries' attempts to explore their own paths to democracy, and in assumed superiority and the determination to impose one's own model of democracy on others.


Political systems vary from civilization to civilization, and each has its own strengths. All countries should uphold the principle of nondiscrimination, respect others' models of democracy, share experience with others, explore their own paths, and contribute their due share to human progress.


“一人一票”是民主的一种形式,但绝非民主的唯一和全部。长期以来,民主本义被少数国家异化歪曲,“一人一票”、政党竞争等西方选举制度被包装成民主的唯一标准。少数国家把民主作为政治工具,以同我即对、非我即错的霸权思维,以民主名义干涉别国内政、侵犯别国主权、服务自身政治目的,打着民主旗号在世界上煽动对抗与分裂,加剧国际紧张局势,成为世界乱源。人类文明要继续向前迈进,各国要实现和平共处、共同发展,必须探索民主真谛,把民主擦亮。

One Person, One Vote is a democratic principle, but it is by no means the only principle, nor does it of itself create democracy. However, it has long been misinterpreted and its meaning distorted by a small number of countries. The principles of One Person, One Vote and party competition underlying the Western electoral system are propagated by them as the sole criterion for democracy. A handful of countries exploit democracy as a political tool. Adopting the hegemonic mindset that "whoever disagrees with me is wrong", they interfere in the internal affairs of others in the name of democracy, and infringe on their sovereignty to serve their own political interests. They also incite antagonism and secession on the pretext of "bringing democracy", causing endless instability in many parts of the world and aggravating international tensions. To advance human progress and achieve peaceful coexistence and common development, all countries must understand and promote genuine democracy.


政党是现代国家治理中的重要主体,是推动人类社会进步的重要力量。在人类文明发展的历史潮流中,各国政党应本着对人类前途命运高度负责的态度,担当起引领推动人类民主事业发展的责任,以民为本,开放包容,求同存异,相互尊重,更好实现本国民主发展,更好实现人民幸福。中国共产党愿继续同各国政党和政治组织一道,深化交流,加强互鉴,共同促进人类社会发展进步。

Political parties in all countries are the major entities of modern governance and an important force for social progress. They should therefore assume their responsibility to spearhead democracy in pursuit of a shared future for humanity, and to achieve greater democracy in their own countries in pursuit of the greater wellbeing of their peoples. They should be open and inclusive, put people first, seek common ground while setting aside differences, and demonstrate mutual respect. The CPC is willing to work together with other political parties and political organizations around the world to increase exchanges, learn from each other, and promote human progress.


结束语

Conclusion


民主没有最好,只有更好。人类对民主的探索和实践永无止境。

There is always scope for improving the system of democracy. Humanity's quest for and experiments with greater democracy will never end.


中国的民主发展取得了显著成就,同时,与现代化建设的新要求、与人民对民主的新期待相比,中国的民主还需要不断发展完善。在全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程上,中国共产党将继续高举人民民主旗帜,始终坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,坚定不移推进全过程人民民主,在不断推动人的全面发展、全体人民共同富裕中实现民主新发展,让民主之树根深叶茂、永远常青。

China has achieved considerable progress in developing democracy; to meet the new requirements of modernization and the people's new expectations for democracy, China still needs to make further improvements. On the path towards comprehensive socialist modernization, the CPC will continue to uphold people's democracy, embrace the people-centered development philosophy, promote whole-process people's democracy, ensure the sound development of democracy, and pursue well-rounded human development and common prosperity for everyone.


当今世界,正处于百年未有之大变局,既充满机遇和希望,也充满风险和挑战。只有尊重各国人民自主选择的民主道路,坚持和平发展,维护公平正义,拓展民主自由,提升人民幸福,才能汇聚全人类文明发展的强大合力,共同迈向更加美好的明天。

Today's world is experiencing change on a scale unseen in a century. It can anticipate hopes and opportunities as well as risks and challenges. All paths to democracy chosen by the peoples themselves deserve proper respect. We should pursue peaceful development, safeguard fairness and justice, increase democracy and freedom, and improve the people's wellbeing. This is the only way to build synergy among all civilizations in the quest for a better future.


文明因交流而多彩,文明因互鉴而丰富。中国人民愿同世界各国人民一道,弘扬和平、发展、公平、正义、民主、自由的全人类共同价值,本着相互尊重、求同存异的精神,共同丰富发展人类政治文明,共同推动构建人类命运共同体。

Civilizations are enriched by exchanges and mutual learning. The Chinese people are willing to work together with all other peoples around the world to carry forward the common values of humanity – peace, development, fairness, justice, democracy and freedom. In a spirit of mutual respect and following the principle of seeking common ground while setting aside differences, we will add new elements to the world's political structure and advance towards a global community of shared future together.


(注①)八个民主党派包括:中国国民党革命委员会(简称“民革”)、中国民主同盟(简称“民盟”)、中国民主建国会(简称“民建”)、中国民主促进会(简称“民进”)、中国农工民主党(简称“农工党”)、中国致公党(简称“致公党”)、九三学社、台湾民主自治同盟(简称“台盟”)。


(注②)新中国成立前,在抗日根据地、解放区的广大农村,中国共产党开展了广泛的民主选举活动。当时,绝大多数农民是文盲,为了让他们都能参加选举,中国共产党使用了很多有创意的办法,其中最为人所传颂的就是“豆选”,即用豆子代替选票,选民只要把豆子投到代表自己想要选的候选人的碗里就可以了,最终以碗中豆子的多少决定谁当选。当时,很多地方流传着这样的歌谣:“金豆豆,银豆豆,豆豆不能随便投;选好人,办好事,投在好人碗里头。”


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